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8?Flow Diagram to Summarize the Chapter and the Process of Bioextraction

8?Flow Diagram to Summarize the Chapter and the Process of Bioextraction

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456



R. K. Sharma et al.



14.9 Conclusion

Bioextraction has been identified as a potential technology for effective extraction

and removal of metals in metal overburdened sites, hence relieving the environmentally stressed ecosystem. Integration of bioextraction and solid phase extraction methodology helps to recover the heavy metal back by encapsulating precious

metals from biomass using metal selective chelating resin, making this approach

greener and constructive for mankind. The chapter presents the simplistic understanding of this environmentally benign alternative approach.



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35. Adholeya A, Sharma RK (2010) Patent: CBR 4171 1146/del/2010



About the Editors



Dr. Chinnappan Baskar is an Associate Professor of Chemistry and Academic

In-charge, THDC Institute of Hydropower Engineering and Technology,

Uttarakhand Technical University, Dehradun, India. He has received his M.Sc.

Chemistry from the Indian Institute of Technology Madras and PhD in Organic

and Materials Chemistry from the Department of Chemistry, National University

of Singapore (NUS), Singapore under the direction of Prof. Suresh Valiyaveettil.

He has joined the faculty in the Department of Chemistry, Lovely Professional

University (LPU) as a Reader then promoted to Head of the Department (2006–

2009). He moved to the Department of Environmental Engineering and

Biotechnology, Myongji University, South Korea in September 2009 as a Brain

Korean 21 (BK21) Research Professor and co-researcher in Energy and

Environmental Fusion Technology Center, Myongji University. He has worked

as Director (Academic Affairs), Dev Bhoomi Group of Institutions, Dehradun,

Uttarakhand. Dr. Baskar research interests include synthetic organic chemistry,

conducting polymers, green chemistry, production of biofuels and fine chemicals

from biomass, ionic liquids, and membrane science separation. He has published

several research papers in reputed international journals and conference

proceedings. He was invited to attend and deliver lectures/seminars in

international and national conferences & workshops. He serves on the Editorial

Advisory Board member and referee for many international chemistry, materials

science, biotechnology and energy journals.

Dr. Shikha Baskar obtained her PhD in Organic Chemistry from the Department

of Biochemistry and Chemistry, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab,

India under the guidance of Prof. Ranjit S. Dhillon and received postdoctoral

training at Myongji University. She has joined as Sr. Lecturer/Assistant Professor

and Head of Laboratory in the Department of Chemistry, Lovely Professional

University, Phagwara, Punjab. She is currently Visiting Faculty of Chemistry at

THDC Institute of Hydropower Engineering and Technology, Tehri, Uttarakhand.

Her current research interests are in the areas of synthetic organic chemistry, green



C. Baskar et al. (eds.), Biomass Conversion,

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-28418-2, Ó Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012



459



460



About the Editors



chemistry, ionic liquids, and production of biofuels. She has authored few

peer-reviewed journal articles and attended many national and international

conferences and workshop.

Dr. Ranjit S. Dhillon is a retired Professor of Organic Chemistry at the Punjab

Agricultural University (PAU), Ludhiana, Punjab, India. He received his PhD from

PAU under the direction of Prof. P. S. Kalsi. He spent three years as a Postdoctoral Fellow with Nobel Laureate Prof. Akira Suzuki at Hokkaido University,

Sapporo, Japan. Dr. Dhillon has supervised 12 PhD students and 20 M.Sc. students

in the areas of chemoselective green methodologies, natural products and their

bioactive studies, and synthesis of eco-friendly Agrochemicals. His research work

mainly ‘‘versatile boranes and borohydrides’’ carried out at PAU was cited by

Nobel Laureate Late Prof. Herbert C. Brown in his research articles and many

other eminent scientists. Professor Dhillon has published over 60 peer-reviewed

papers and one book chapter. He is the author of Hydroboration and Organic

Synthesis (Springer-Verlag Heidelberg, 2007).



Index



A

ABE fermentation, 222

Acid hydrolysis, 152, 294, 295

Acidogenesis, 228

Aerobic fermentation, 39

Agricultural residue-based biorefinery, 60

Alaskan birch, 423, 425–427

Alcoholic fermentation, 43

Algal biomass, 53

Algae diesel, 260

Alkali hydrolysis, 296

Alkali metal, 190

Alkaline medium, 393, 394, 399–401, 402,

405, 407

Ambient temperature bacteria, 444

Ammonia pretreatment, 153–154

Anaerobic digestion, 40, 109

Antioxidant, 353

Apple pomace, 256, 257, 287–289

Applications of bioextraction, 451

Aquaculture-based biorefinery, 70



B

Banana waste, 258, 290, 291

Barley, 292

Biobutanol, 222

Bio-char, 423, 425–427

Biochemical conversion processes, 38

Biodiesel, 119, 200

Bioenergy, 123

Bioethanol, 200, 237–239, 246–248, 251

Bioethanol production, 237

Bioethanol refinery, 300

Bioextraction, 436

Biohydrogen, 314, 320, 323, 326, 331–333

Biofuels, 4, 5



Bioleaching, 441

Bio-oil, 422–424, 427–431

Biomass, 2, 123, 421, 423

Biomass applications, 173

Biomass and electricity generation, 79

Biomass conversion, 187, 188

Biomass conversion methods, 6, 7

Biomass conversion processes, 95

Biomass dissolution, 147

Biomass energy, 91

Biomass feedstock, 239

Biomass liquefaction, 423

Biomass production techniques, 94

Biomass solubility, 146

Biomass of plants, 237

Biomining, 441

Biorefinery, 56

Biorefinery based on agriculture

sector feedstock, 59

Biorefinery feedstock, 58

Biorefinery platform, 78, 80

Biorefinery products, 57

Biostil fermentation, 285

Biotechnological approaches, 245–247

Bleaching, 349, 351, 360, 361, 369

Briquetting, 104



C

Candida lusitance, 262

Candida pseudotropicalis, 261

Candida shehatae, 261

Carbonization, 99

Carbohydrates, 263, 264, 342, 346, 347, 351,

358, 369, 370

Cassava roots, 293

Catalytic pyrolysis, 192



C. Baskar et al. (eds.), Biomass Conversion,

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-28418-2, Ó Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012



461



462



C (cont.)

Catalytic liquefaction, 101

Catalyst, 188, 388, 394–399, 405, 406

Cellulase deactivation, 165, 205, 211

Cellulase stabilization, 167–170

Cellulose, 268, 341, 345, 347, 349–352, 356,

358, 360, 361, 365, 367, 369, 370

Cellulose crystallinity, 160–161

Cellulosic ethanol, 237, 238, 246, 247

Cheese whey, 259, 292

Chelating agent, 451

Chelating ligand, 451

Chelating resin, 451

Chemical separation, 447

Chemical structure of lignin, 382, 385

Chemically induced/assisted

phytoextraction, 439

Clostridium, 314, 317, 318, 320, 321, 331

Clostridium acetobutylicum, 222

Clostridium cellulolyticum, 262

Clostridium cellulovorans, 262

Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum, 262

Co-Firing, 96

Coenzyme-A-dependent fermentative

pathways, 272

Coffee waste, 259

Combustion, 187

Combustion forms, 11

Combustion process, 11

Combustion systems, 13

Commercial gasifiers, 37

Compaction characteristics, 107

Comparison, biorefinery and petroleum

refinery, 75, 79

Composites, 352, 353, 360, 363

Composite fibers, 174, 176

Continuous fermentation, 284

Continuous lignin oxidation, 407

Conversion, 383, 390–392, 394, 406, 407

Conventional batch fermentation, 283

Coppicing, 94

Crabtree effect, 280

Cracking, 201, 214



D

Dark fermentation, 313–315, 317–321, 327,

330–332

Decarbonylation, 209

Delignification, 346, 351, 367, 369

Deoxygenation, 199, 209

Direct bioleaching, 442

Direct combustion, 8



Index

Direct Combustion Processes, 96

Distillation process, 449

Dissolving pulp, 360, 361

Dolomite, 189

Downstream processing in gasification, 36

Dump bioleaching, 443



E

Effect of anion on dissolution of biomass, 149

Energy Plantation, 93

Enhancement of biomass, 239

Enzymatic hydrolysis, 296, 297, 347, 350, 351

Electrolytic reduction, 448

Electrolytic refining, 449

Ethanol, 251, 343

Ethanol Fermentation, 117

Escherichia coli, 262, 276

Eucalyptus, 386–388, 381

Extremely-thermophilic bacteria, 445



F

Facultative anaerobes, 318

Fatty acid, 199

Fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, 275

Fed-batch fermentation, 285

Feedstock for biochemical conversion

processes, 38

Fermentation, 279, 347, 360, 361

Fermentation inhibitors, 52

Fine chemicals, 388, 390

First-Generation Technologies, 120

Fischer–Tropsch, 189

Forest biorefinery, 65

Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy

(FTIR), 424–427

Fractionation, 341, 342

Froth floatation, 447

Functional genomics, 244

Furfural, 347, 348, 354, 358, 359

Fusarium oxysporum, 260



G

Gas chromatography-mass

spectrometry (GC-MS), 424, 427–429

Gas stripping, 230

Gasification, 25, 100, 190

Gasification reactions, 27, 28

Gasifier designs, 30

Gasifiers

Types, 102



Index

Counter Current, 102

Updraught, 102

Co-Current, 102

Downdraught, 102

Cross-Draught, 103

Fluidized Bed, 103

Gasohol, 252

Genetic modification, 243–247

Genetically modified microorganisms, 275

Glucose, 264, 347, 350, 352, 358, 368, 369

Glycolysis, 317

Guaiacyl lignin, 145–147



H

Hardwood, 381–389, 393, 394, 399, 400, 402,

404, 405

Heap bioleaching, 443

Heap minerals biooxidation, 445

Hemicellulose, 270, 271, 347–349, 361

Hydrodeoxygenation, 200, 201

Hydrogen bonding, 161

Hydrogenase, 314, 315, 317, 324, 325

Hydrolysis, 343, 346–348, 350, 351, 353, 355,

358, 361, 364, 368, 369

p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 398, 400, 406

High biomass plants, 438

Hydraulic washing, 447

Hyper-accumulator plants, 438



I

Indirect bioleaching, 442

Infrared spectroscopy, 157

Integrated biorefinery, 74

Integrated process, 387, 411, 412

Ion exchange process, 408–410

Ionic liquids, 124, 130, 132, 145–177

Ionic liquid biodegradability, 173

Ionic liquid impurities, 156

Ionic liquid recycling, 171

Ionic liquid toxicity, 165

Ionic liquid viscosity, 151

Imadazolium based ionic liquids, 147, 148

Isoprenoid pathway, 275



K

Keto acid pathways, 274

Kinetic, 394, 398, 402–404

Kloeckera oxytoca, 277

Kraft liquor, 384, 395



463

L

Lactose, 265

Leaching, 451

Levulinic acid, 347, 354, 355

Lignin, 343, 352, 355, 362, 381–412, 424–427

Lignin models, 159

Lithium catalysts, 153

Lignocellulose, 123, 130

Lignocellulosic biomass, 66–68

Lignocellulosic materials, 223

Lignosulfonate, 385–389, 391, 392, 398, 400,

403, 405, 409

Liquation process, 449

Lopping, 95



M

Magnetic separation, 447

Market, 390, 392

Mass spectrometry, 158

Methanol, 364

Melting point of ionic liquid, 149

Metabolic engineering, 272

Metal recovery, 450

Microbes, 444

Microwave heating, 154

Minerals biooxidation, 443

Mixed cultures, 318–322

Methane Production in Landfills, 116

Mesophilic, 113

Moderately-thermophilic bacteria, 447

Monosaccharides, 347

Monosugars, 130, 132

Mutants, 240, 242–244

Mycorrhizal association, 454



N

Nanocatalyst, 194

Natural phytoextraction, 438

Nickel, 190

Nitrogenase, 324–327

Non-grain biomass, 238

Nuclear magnetic resonance, 158



O

Oilseed biorefinery, 62

Olivine, 189

Optical absorption spectroscopy, 157, 158

Orange peel waste, 258, 291

Organosolv, 386, 388, 389, 391, 398, 399



464



O (cont.)

Oxygen, 394, 395, 399, 401–403, 405–408,

410

Oxidation, 392–395, 399–411

Oxidation process, 449



P

Pachysolen tannophilus, 260–262

Palladium catalyst, 207

Petroleum refinery platform, 78, 81

Photofermentation, 313, 314, 324–328,

330–333

Phytoextraction, 437

Pichia stiptis, 277

Pinch technology, 359

Pineapple waste, 258

Piston Press, 104

Plant architecture, 239, 241–243

Pollarding, 95

Populus trichocarpa, 146

Pore size, 193

Potato peel waste, 258, 291

Precipitation, 348, 353, 358

Pretreatment, 123, 126, 130, 145, 347, 360,

361, 364, 369

Profiles of phenolic products, 399

Pruning, 95

Pulping, 342

Pulp and paper industry, 392

Purified cellulose, 159

Pyrolysis, 17, 97, 191

Pyrolysis processes, 20

Phytohormonesignaling intermediates, 240



R

Raman spectroscopy, 157, 158, 176

Reactor configuration, 321, 323, 329, 330, 332

Reduction, 450

Reducing sugars, 150

Reinforcement, 352, 360, 364

Resins, 352, 362, 367

Resistant cellulases, 166

Rice husk, 292

Rice straw, 256, 291



S

Saccharomyces cerevisae, 260, 261, 278, 288

Saccharomyces ellipsoideus, 261

Schizosaccharomyces pombe, 260

Screw Press, 105

Second-Generation Technologies, 120



Index

Selectivity, 398, 399, 409

Simulation, 348, 359, 367

Sitka spruce, 423, 425

Stirred-tank bioleaching, 443

Softwood, 381, 382, 384–386, 388, 389, 393,

394, 398, 399

Solid support, 451

Solvent polarity, 163–164

Solventogenesis, 227

Spent sulfite liquor, 259

Starch, 267

Stearic acid, 209

Straw, 238, 245, 247

Strict anaerobes, 317

Structure, 343, 355

Structured packed bubble column reactor, 397,

406–408

Sucrose, 265

Sugar molasses, 286

Sugarcane Bagasse, 255, 256

Sulfided catalyst, 202

Sulfite Liquor, 392, 398, 410

Supercritical extraction, 408, 411

Supercritical methanol, 422, 423, 430, 431

Switchgrass and Miscanthus, 238, 239, 244,

245

Syringyl lignin, 145–147

Syngas, 263

Synthesis gas, 188

Synthetic chelates, 439

Syringaldehyde, 381, 393, 394, 398, 399, 400,

402, 406, 408, 409



T

Tall oil fatty acid, 212

Technology of bioethanol production, 286

Temperature effects in dissolution, 150

Thermal pretreatment, 299

Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, 262

Thermoeconomic modelling, 85

Thermochemical processes, 7, 97, 390, 391

Thermophilic, 113

Thinning, 95

Torrefaction, 98

Torula cremoris, 261

Trichoderma reesei, 150

Two-stage conversion, 313



U

Ultra-filtration, 348, 350, 353, 387, 410–412

Ultrasound pretreatment, 154

Unit Operations, 109



Index



465



V

Vanadium catalysts, 153

Vanillin, 381, 387, 388, 390–394, 398–410



X

Xylan, 358, 360

Xylose, 347, 358, 361



W

Water adsorption in ionic liquid pretreatment,

155

Waste biorefinery, 70

Wheat straw, 254, 291

Wet oxidation, 300

Whole crop biorefinery, 61

Wood Chemistry, 128

Wood density, 151

Wood swelling, 160



Y

Yield, 389, 393–395, 399–408, 410



Z

Zymomonas mobilis, 260–262, 276, 286



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