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TABLE A.3 Standard-State Enthalpies, Free Energies, and Entropies of Atom Combination

TABLE A.3 Standard-State Enthalpies, Free Energies, and Entropies of Atom Combination

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383



TABLE A.3

Substance

H3BO3(s)

BF3(g)

BCl3()

B3N3H6()

B3N3H6(g)



Standard-State Enthalpies, Free Energies, and

Entropies of Atom Combination (continued)

∆Hac

°

∆G°

∆Sac

°

ac

(kJ/mol)

(kJ/mol)

(J/mol-K)

–3057.5

–2792.7

–891.92

–1936.7

–1824.9

–375.59

–1354.9

–1223.2

–442.7

–4953.1

–4535.4

–1408.9

–4923.9

–4532.8

–1319.84



Br2()

Br2(g)

Br(g)

HBr(g)

HBr(aq)

BrF(g)

BrF3(g)

BrF5(g)



Bromine

–223.768

–164.792

–192.86

–161.68

0

0

–365.93

–339.09

–451.08

–389.60

–284.72

–253.49

–604.45

–497.56

–935.73

–742.6



Ca(s)

Ca(g)

Ca+2(aq)

CaO(s)

Ca(OH)2(s)

CaCl2(s)

CaSO4(s)

CaSO4.2H2O(s)

Ca(NO3)2(s)

CaCO3(s)

Ca3(PO4)2(s)



Calcium

–178.2

–144.3

0

0

–721.0

–697.9

–1062.5

–980.1

–2097.9

–1912.7

–1217.4

–1103.8

–2887.8

–2631.3

–4256.7

–4383.2

–3557.0

–3189.0

–2849.3

–2639.5

–7278.0

–6727.9



C(graphite)

C(diamond)

C(g)

CO(g)

CO2(g)

COCl2(g)

CH4(g)

HCHO(g)

H2CO3(aq)

HCO3–(aq)

CO3–2(aq)

CH3OH()

CH3OH(g)

CCl4()

CCl4(g)

CHCl3()



Carbon

–716.682

–671.257

–714.787

–668.357

0

0

–1076.377 –1040.156

–1608.531 –1529.078

–1428.0

–1318.9

–1662.09

–1535.00

–1509.72

–1412.01

–2599.14

–2396.02

–2373.83

–2156.47

–2141.33

–1894.26

–2075.11

–1882.25

–2037.11

–1877.94

–1338.84

–1159.19

–1306.3

–1154.57

–1433.84

–1265.20



–197.813

–104.58

0

–91.040

–207.3

–104.81

–358.75

–648.60

–113.46

0

–208.0

–276.19

–623.03

–380.7

–860.3

–1553.8

–1234.5

–703.2

–1843.5

–152.36

–155.719

0

–121.477

–266.47

–366.02

–430.68

–329.81

–683.3

–664.8

–698.16

–651.2

–538.19

–602.49

–509.04

–567.3



384



TABLE A.3

Substance

CHCl3(g)

CH2Cl2()

CH2Cl2(g)

CH3Cl(g)

CS2()

CS2(g)

HCN(g)

CH3NO2()

C2H2(g)

C2H4(g)

C2H6(g)

CH3CHO()

CH3CO2H()

CH3CO2H(g)

CH3CO2H(aq)

CH3CO2–(aq)

CH3CH2OH()

CH3CH2OH(g)

CH3CH2OH(aq)

C6H6()

C6H6(g)



Standard-State Enthalpies, Free Energies, and

Entropies of Atom Combination (continued)

∆Hac

°

∆G°

∆Sac

°

ac

(kJ/mol)

(kJ/mol)

(J/mol-K)

–1402.51

–1261.88

–472.69

–1516.80

–1356.37

–540.1

–1487.81

–1354.98

–447.69

–1572.15

–1444.08

–432.9

–1184.59

–1082.49

–342.40

–1156.93

–1080.64

–255.90

–1271.9

–1205.43

–224.33

–2453.77

–2214.51

–805.89

–1641.93

–1539.81

–344.68

–2251.70

–2087.35

–555.48

–2823.94

–2594.82

–774.87

–2745.43

–2515.35

–775.9

–3286.8

–3008.86

–937.4

–3234.55

–2992.96

–814.7

–3288.06

–3015.42

–918.5

–3070.66

–2785.03

–895.8

–3266.12

–2968.51 –1004.8

–3223.53

–2962.22

–882.82

–3276.7

–2975.37 –1017.0

–5556.96

–5122.52 –1464.1

–5523.07

–5117.36 –1367.7



Cl2(g)

Cl(g)

Cl–(aq)

ClO2(g)

Cl2O(g)

Cl2O7()

HCl(g)

HCl(aq)

ClF(g)



Chlorine

–243.358

–211.360

0

0

–288.838

–236.908

–517.5

–448.6

–412.2

–345.2

–1750

–431.64

–404.226

–506.49

–440.155

–255.15

–223.53



Cr(s)

Cr(g)

CrO3(s)

CrO4–2(aq)

Cr2O3(s)

Cr2O7-2(aq)

(NH4)2Cr2O7(s)

PbCrO4(s)



Chromium

–396.6

–351.8

0

0

–1733.6

–2274.4

–2006.47

–2680.4

–2456.89

–4027.7

–3626.8

–7030.7

–2519.2

-



Co(s)

Co(g)



Cobalt

–424.7

–380.3

0

0

(continued)



–107.330

0

–108.7

–230.47

–225.24

–93.003

–223.4

–106.06

–150.73

0

–768.51

–751.0

–1214.5

-



–149.475

0



385



TABLE A.3



Standard-State Enthalpies, Free Energies, and

Entropies of Atom Combination (continued)

∆Hac

°

∆G°

∆Sac

°

ac

Substance

(kJ/mol)

(kJ/mol)

(J/mol-K)

Co+2(aq)

–482.9

–434.7

–293

Co+3(aq)

–333

–246.3

–485

CoO(s)

–911.8

–826.2

–287.60

Co3O4(s)

–3162

–2842

–1080.3

Co(NH3)6+3(aq) –7763.5

–6929.5

–3018.

Cu(s)

Cu(g)

Cu+(aq)

Cu+2(aq)

CuO(s)

Cu2O(s)

CuCl2(s)

CuS(s)

Cu2S(s)

CuSO4(s)

Cu(NH3)4+2(aq)



Copper

–338.32

–298.58

0

0

–266.65

–248.60

–273.55

–233.09

–744.8

–660.0

–1094.4

–974.9

–807.8

–685.6

–670.2

–590.4

–1304.9

–921.6

–2385.17

–1530.44

–5189.4

–4671.13



–133.23

0

–125.8

–266.0

–284.81

–400.68

–388.71

–267.7

–379.7

–869

–1882.5



Fluorine

–157.98

–123.82

0

0

–411.62

–340.70

–567.7

–538.4

–616.72

–561.98



–114.73

0

–172.6

–99.688

–184.8



H2(g)

H(g)

H+(aq)

OH–(aq)

H2O()

H2O(g)

H2O2()

H2O2(aq)



Hydrogen

–435.30

–406.494

0

0

–217.65

–203.247

–696.81

–592.222

–970.30

–875.354

–926.29

–866.797

–1121.42

–990.31

–1124.81

–1003.99



–98.742

0

–114.713

–286.52

–320.57

–202.23

–441.9

–407.6



I2(s)

I2(g)

I(g)

HI(g)

IF(g)

IF5(g)

IF7(g)

ICl(g)

IBr(g)



Iodine

–213.676

–141.00

–151.238

–121.67

0

0

–298.01

–272.05

–281.48

–250.92

–1324.28

–1131.78

–1603.7

–1322.17

–210.74

–181.64

–177.88

–149.21



–245.447

–100.89

0

–88.910

–103.38

–646.9

–945.6

–98.438

–97.040



F2(g)

F(g)

F–(aq)

HF(g)

HF(aq)



386



TABLE A.3

Substance

Fe(s)

Fe(g)

Fe+2(aq)

Fe+3(aq)

Fe2O3(s)

Fe3O4(s)

Fe(OH)2(s)

Fe(OH)3(s)

FeCl3(s)

FeS2(s)

Fe(CO)5()

Fe(CO)5(g)



Standard-State Enthalpies, Free Energies, and

Entropies of Atom Combination (continued)

∆Hac

°

∆G°

∆Sac

°

ac

(kJ/mol)

(kJ/mol)

(J/mol-K)

Iron

–416.3

–370.7

–153.21

0

0

0

–505.4

–449.6

–318.2

–464.8

–375.4

–496.4

–2404.3

–2178.8

–756.75

–3364.0

–3054.4

–1039.3

–1918.9

–1727.2

–644

–2639.8

–2372.1

–901.1

–1180.8

–1021.7

–533.8

–1152.1

–1014.1

–463.2

–6019.6

–5590.9

–1438.1

–5979.5

–5582.9

–1330.9



Pb(s)

Pb(g)

Pb+2(aq)

PbO(s)

PbO2(s)

PbCl2(s)

PbCl4()

PbS(s)

PbSO4(s)

Pb(NO3)2(s)

PbCO3(s)



Lead

–195.0

–161.9

0

0

–196.7

–186.3

–661.5

–581.5

–970.7

–842.7

–797.8

–687.4

–1011.0

–574.2

–498.9

–2390.4

–2140.2

–3087.3

–2358.3

–2153.8



–110.56

0

–164.9

–267.7

–428.9

–369.8

–252.0

–838.84

–685.6



Li(s)

Li(g)

Li+(aq)

LiH(s)

LiOH(s)

LiF(s)

LiCl(s)

LiBr(s)

LiI(s)

LiAlH4(s)

LiBH4(s)



Lithium

–159.37

–126.66

0

0

–437.86

–419.97

–467.56

–398.26

–1111.12

–1000.59

–854.33

–784.28

–689.66

–616.71

–622.48

–551.06

–536.62

–467.45

–1472.7

–1270.0

–1401.9

–1333.4



–109.65

0

–125.4

–233.40

–371.74

–261.87

–244.64

–239.52

–232.78

–683.42

–675.21



Mg(s)

Mg(g)

Mg+2(aq)

MgO(s)

MgH2(s)



Magnesium

–147.70

–113.10

0

0

–614.55

–567.9

–998.57

–914.26

–658.3

–555.5

(continued)



–115.97

0

–286.8

–282.76

–346.99



387



TABLE A.3

Substance

Mg(OH)2(s)

MgCl2(s)

MgCO3(s)

MgSO4(s)

Mn(s)

Mn(g)

Mn+2(aq)

MnO(s)

MnO2(s)

Mn2O3(s)

Mn3O4(s)

KMnO4(s)

MnS(s)

Hg()

Hg(g)

Hg+2(aq)

HgO(s)

HgCl2(s)

Hg2Cl2(s)

HgS(s)

N2(g)

N(g)

NO(g)

NO2(g)

N2O(g)

N2O3(g)

N2O4(g)

N2O5(g)

NO3–(aq)

NOCl(g)

NO2Cl(g)

HNO2(aq)

HNO3(g)

HNO3(aq)

NH3(g)

NH3(aq)

NH4+(aq)

NH4NO3(s)

NH4NO3(aq)



Standard-State Enthalpies, Free Energies, and

Entropies of Atom Combination (continued)

∆Hac

°

∆G°

∆Sac

°

ac

(kJ/mol)

(kJ/mol)

(J/mol-K)

–2005.88

–1816.64

–637.01

–1032.38

–916.25

–389.43

–2707.7

–2491.7

–724.2

–2708.1

–2448.9

–869.1

Manganese

–280.7

–238.5

0

0

–501.5

–466.6

–915.1

–833.1

–1299.1

–1167.1

–2267.9

–2053.3

–3226.6

–2925.6

–2203.8

–1963.6

–773.7

–695.2

Mercury

–61.317

–31.820

0

0

+109.8

+132.58

–401.32

–322.090

–529.0

–421.8

–631.21

–485.745

–398.3

–320.67

Nitrogen

–945.408

–911.26

0

0

–631.62

–600.81

–937.86

–867.78

–1112.53

–1038.79

–1609.20

–1466.99

–1932.93

–1740.29

–2179.91

–1954.8

–1425.2

–1259.56

–791.84

–726.96

–1080.12

–970.4

–1307.9

–1172.9

–1572.92

–1428.79

–1645.22

–1465.32

–1171.76

–1081.82

–1205.94

–1091.87

–1475.81

–1347.93

–2929.08

–2603.31

–2903.39

–2610.00



–141.69

0

–247.3

–275.05

–442.76

–720.1

–1009.7

–806.50

–263.3

–98.94

0

–207.2

–265.73

–359.4

–487.8

–260.4

–114.99

0

–103.592

–235.35

–247.80

–477.48

–646.53

–756.2

–490.1

–217.86

–368.46

–454.5

–484.80

–604.8

–304.99

–386.1

–498.8

–1097.53

–988.8



388



TABLE A.3

Substance

NH4Cl(s)

N2H4()

N2H4(g)

HN3(g)

O2(g)

O(g)

O3(g)



Standard-State Enthalpies, Free Energies, and

Entropies of Atom Combination (continued)

∆Hac

°

∆G°

∆Sac

°

ac

(kJ/mol)

(kJ/mol)

(J/mol-K)

–1779.41

–1578.17

–682.7

–1765.38

–1574.91

–644.24

–1720.61

–1564.90

–526.98

–1341.7

–1242.0

–335.37

Oxygen

–498.340

–463.462

0

0

–604.8

–532.0



–116.972

0

–244.24



P(white)

P4(g)

P2(g)

P(g)

PH3(g)

P4O6(s)

P4O10(s)

PO43-(aq)

PF3(g)

PF5(g)

PCl3()

PCl3(g)

PCl5(g)

H3PO4(s)

H3PO4(aq)



Phosphorus

–314.64

–278.25

–1199.65

–1088.6

–485.0

–452.8

0

0

–962.2

–874.6

–4393.7

–6734.3

–6128.0

–2588.7

–2223.9

–1470.4

–1361.5

–2305.4

–999.4

–867.6

–966.7

–863.1

–1297.9

–1111.6

–3243.3

–2934.0

–3241.7

–2833.6



–122.10

–372.79

–108.257

0

–297.10

–2034.46

–1029

–366.22

–441.7

–347.01

–624.60

–1041.05

–1374



K(s)

K(g)

K+(aq)

KOH(s)

KCl(s)

KNO3(s)

K2Cr2O7(s)

KMnO4(s)



Potassium

–89.24

–60.59

0

0

–341.62

–343.86

–980.82

–874.65

–647.67

–575.41

–1804.08

–1606.27

–4777.4

–4328.7

–2203.8

–1963.6



–96.16

0

–57.8

–357.2

–242.94

–663.75

–1505.9

–806.50



Si(s)

Si(g)

SiO2(s)

SiH4(g)

SiF4(g)

SiCl4()

SiCl4(g)



Silicon

–455.6

–411.3

0

0

–1864.9

–1731.4

–1291.9

–1167.4

–2386.5

–2231.6

–1629.3

–1453.9

–1599.3

–1451.0

(continued)



–149.14

0

–448.24

–422.20

–520.50

–589

–498.03



389



TABLE A.3

Substance



Standard-State Enthalpies, Free Energies, and

Entropies of Atom Combination (continued)

∆Hac

°

∆G°

∆Sac

°

ac

(kJ/mol)

(kJ/mol)

(J/mol-K)



Ag(s)

Ag(g)

Ag+(aq)

Ag(NH3)2+(aq)

Ag2O(s)

AgCl(s)

AgBr(s)

AgI(s)



Silver

–284.55

0

–178.97

–2647.15

–849.32

–533.30

–496.80

–453.23



Na(s)

Na(g)

Na+(aq)

NaH(s)

NaOH(s)

NaOH(aq)

NaCl(s)

NaCl(g)

NaCl(aq)

NaNO3(s)

Na3PO4(s)

Na2SO3(s)

Na2SO4(s)

Na2CO3(s)

NaHCO3(s)

NaCH3CO2(s)

Na2CrO4(s)

Na2Cr2O7(s)



Sodium

–107.32

–76.761 –102.50

0

0

0

–374.45

–338.666

–94.7

–3811.25

–313.47

–228.409

–999.75

–891.233 –365.025

–1044.25

–930.889 –381.4

–640.15

–566.579 –246.78

–405.65

–379.10

–89.10

–636.27

–575.574 –203.4

–1795.38

–1594.58

–673.66

–3550.68

–3224.26 –1094.75

–2363.96

–2115.0

–803

–2877.20

–2588.86

–969.89

–2809.51

–2564.41

–813.70

–2739.97

–2497.5

–808.0

–3400.78

–3099.66 –1013.2

–2950.1

–2667.18

–949.53

–4730.6

-



S8(s)

S8(g)

S(g)

S2-(aq)

SO2(g)

SO3(s)

SO3()

SO3(g)

SO42-(aq)

SOCl2(g)

SO2Cl2(g)

H2S(g)



Sulfur

–2230.440

–2128.14

0

–245.7

–1073.975

–1480.82

–1467.36

–1422.04

–2184.76

–983.8

–1384.5

–734.74



–245.65

0

–168.54

–2393.51

–734.23

–461.12

–424.95

–382.34



–130.42

0

–100.29

–922.6

–385.7

–242.0

–240.9

–238.3



–1906.000 –1310.77

–1856.37

–911.59

0

0

–152.4

–182.4

–1001.906 –241.71

–1307.65

–580.3

–1307.19

–537.2

–1304.50

–394.23

–1909.70

–791.9

–879.6

–349.50

–1233.1

–508.39

–678.30

–191.46



390



TABLE A.3

Substance

H2SO3(aq)

H2SO4(aq)

SF4(g)

SF6(g)

SCN–(aq)



Standard-State Enthalpies, Free Energies, and

Entropies of Atom Combination (continued)

∆Hac

°

∆G°

∆Sac

°

ac

(kJ/mol)

(kJ/mol)

(J/mol-K)

–2070.43

–1877.75

–648.2

–2620.06

–2316.20 –1021.4

–1369.66

–1217.2

–510.81

–1962

–1715.0

–828.53

–1391.75

–1272.43

–334.9



Sn(s)

Sn(g)

SnO(s)

SnO2(s)

SnCl2(s)

SnCl4()

SnCl4(g)



Tin

–302.1

0

–837.1

–1381.1

–870.6

–1300.1

–1260.3



Ti(s)

Ti(g)

TiO(s)

TiO2(s)

TiCl4()

TiCl4(g)



Titanium

–469.9

–425.1

0

0

–1238.8

–1151.8

–1913.0

–1778.1

–1760.8

–1585.0

–1719.8

–1574.6



–149.6

0

–306.5

–452.0

–588.7

–486.2



W(s)

W(g)

WO3(s)



Tungsten

–849.4

–807.1

0

0

–2439.8

–2266.4



–141.31

0

–581.22



Zn(s)

Zn(g)

Zn2+(aq)

ZnO(s)

ZnCl2(s)

ZnS(s)

ZnSO4(s)



Zinc

–130.729

–95.145

0

0

–284.62

–242.21

–728.18

–645.18

–789.14

–675.90

–615.51

–534.69

–2389.0

–2131.8



–119.35

0

–273.1

–278.40

–379.92

–271.1

–862.5



–267.3

0

–755.9

–1250.5

–249.8

–1122.2



–124.35

0

–273.0

–438.3

–570.7

–463.5



391



Index

acid, 252

Arrhenius, 252

Bronsted-Lowry, 252

relative strength, 277

strong, 256

weak, 256

activated complex, 355

activation energy, 355, 376

anion, 142

anode, 298

atom balance, 169

atomic number, 3

atomic radius, 40

AVEE, 122

average valence electron energy, 122

balancing chemical equations, 168

base, 252

weak, 266

benzene, 90, 92

bimolecular event, 359

Bohr model, 25

bond angle, 108

bond energy, 84

bond length, 84, 103, 203

bond order, 84

bond triangles, 152

bonding pair, 76

catalyst, 371

cathode, 298

cation, 142

charge balance, 170

collision frequency, 355

conjugate pair, 254, 284

core charge, 30

Coulombic Potential Energy, 16

Coulomb's Law, 16, 194

covalent bonding, 152

diamagnetic, 69

dipole moment, 136

domains, 111

effective nuclear charge, 33

electrochemical cell, 298

electrolyte

non, 182

strong, 182



392



weak, 182

electromagnetic radiation, 44

electron

configuration, 60, 64

inner-shell, 30

spin, 68

valence, 30

electronegativity, 132

empirical formula, 178, 179

endothermic, 196

energy level, 48, 49

enthalpy

atom combination, 194

change, 196, 200

entropy, 308, 310

atom combination, 318

changes, 318

chemical reaction, 321

enzyme, 372

equilibrium, 211, 217

constant, 226

constant (acid), 256

constant expression, 226

equilibrium constant, 224, 326, 331

exothermic, 196

first-order rate law (integrated), 346

formal charge, 98, 126

free energy (G), 328

frequency, 45

Gibbs free energy (G), 328

half-reaction, 300

hybrid orbitals, 118

ideal gas law, 190

insoluble, 244

intermediate species, 362

intermolecular forces, 157

ionic bond, 142, 152

ionization energy, 17, 22, 27

isotope, 8

kinetic control, 365

law of mass action, 226

Lewis structures, 74, 84, 90, 96, 102

limiting reagent, 174

lone pair, 76, 111

magnetic moment, 69

Mass Number, 4

mechanism, 359, 371

mechanisms, 354

metals, 148, 152

molarity, 182, 184



393



mole, 164

molecular shapes, 113

octet, 103

orbital, 71

oxidation numbers, 294

oxidation-reduction, 291

oxidized, 292

oxidizing agent, 292

paramagnetic, 69

partial charge, 126

Pauli Exclusion Principle, 71

percent composition, 178

periodic table

column (group), 40

row (period), 40

pH, 272

photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), 49

photons, 45

Potential Energy, 16

precipitate, 246

quantized, 48

quantum mechanical model, 71

rate

constant, 340

law, 340

law, integrated, 346

reaction, 206, 208

reaction coordinate diagram, 356

reaction quotient, 232, 233

redox, 291

reduced, 292

reducing agent, 292

resonance, 92

hybrid, 92

structures, 92

saturated, 244

second-order rate law (integrated), 346

semiconductors, 154

semimetals, 155

shell, 25, 26, 56

shell model, 26

solubility, 244

solubility product, 242, 245

soluble, 244

standard half-cell, 298

standard state conditions, 320

Stern-Gerlach experiment, 68

stoichiometric coefficient, 226

thermodynamic control, 365

transition state, 355



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TABLE A.3 Standard-State Enthalpies, Free Energies, and Entropies of Atom Combination

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