Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang
Currently, the production of green and safe vegetables are being promoted around the world. In vegetable production, people go in many directions such as organic production, producers with limited safety process apply chemical fertilizers and pesticides a
is ranked in the Top 3 in the world production of vegetables after China and
126.96.36.199. The situation and the economic efficiency of safe vegetable
production and its consumption in the world
The total value of safe vegetable production as of 1992 Korea's $ 7
billion to the total cultivation area of vegetables is 356 thousand hectare.
During the period 1970 to 1992, although the total area of arable land has
decreased by 10.6% but the area planted increased by 1.46 times greens
Israel is one of the largest exporters of agricultural products and the
world's leading technology in agricultural production. However, half of the
area is desert, extreme hot and dry conditions and lack of water completely.
But thanks to modern technology and advanced unique way, agricultural land
areas accounts for 24.2% of Israel, accounting for 2.5% of total agricultural
GDP and 3.6% of the total workforce in the country. Israel is 95% selfproduced food needs such as beef, green vegetables, fruits
Israeli agricultural output increased by 26% from 1999 to 2009, while
the number of farmers decreased from 23,500 to 17,000 people
Between 2004 and 2006, the vegetables and roots make up 35% of total
industry output, accounting for 20% of flowers, fruits (excluding citrus)
accounted for about 15%, citrus fruit accounted for 10%, cotton and cereals
other agricultural products accounted for 16%
Agriculture in the Empire of Japan was an important component of the
pre-war Japanese economy. Although Japan had only 16% of its land area
under cultivation before the Pacific War, over 45% of households made a
living from farming. Japanese cultivated land was mostly dedicated to rice,
which accounted for 15% of world rice production in 1937.
Japanese agriculture has been characterized as a "sick" sector because it
must contend with a variety of constraints, such as the rapidly diminishing
availability of arable land and falling agricultural incomes. The problem of
surplus rice was further aggravated by extensive changes in the diets of many
Japanese in the 1970s and 1980s. Even a major rice crop failure did not
reduce the accumulated stocks by more than 25% of the reserve. In 1990,
Japan was 67% self-sufficient in agricultural products and provided for
around 30% of its cereal and fodder needs.
2.2.2. The situation of farmland production safe vegetables in Vietnam
188.8.131.52. General situation of vegetable production in Vietnam
2004, agriculture and forestry accounted
of Vietnam's gross domestic product (GDP), and between 1994 and 2004, the
sector grew at an annual rate of 4.1 percent. Agriculture's share of economic
output has declined in recent years, falling as a share of GDP from 42% in
1989 to 26% in 1999, as production in other sectors of the economy has risen.
However, agricultural employment was much higher than agriculture’s share
of GDP; in 2005, approximately 60 percent of the employed labor force was
engaged in agriculture, forestry, and fishing. Agricultural products accounted
for 30 percent of exports in 2005. The relaxation of the tate monopoly on rice
exports transformed the country into the world’s second or third largest rice
exporter. Other cash crops are coffee, cotton, peanuts, rubber, sugarcane,
Table 2.1: The situation of farmland in Vietnam from 2007-2009
4 899 834
5 002 330
4 956 667
2 996 443
2 832 753
1 018 904
1 094 037
6 194 730
6 510 387
6 928 400
1 274 728
1 482 361
1 635 944
3 319 055
3 392 694
3 564 268
Source: General Statistics Office 2006-2010
- The vegetable concentrate, intensive coastal cities, towns and
industrial areas 46% and 45% of the acreage vegetable production in the
country. Vegetable production in this region is mainly supplied to the
domestic market. Vegetable species greatly varies areas including 60-80 in the
winter-spring crop of vegetables, 20-30 in the summer vegetables.
- The production of vegetables in the direction of commodities, crop
rotation with food crops in the plains, accounting for 54% of area and 55% of
vegetable production in the country. Vegetables in this area focus on
processing, exporting and regulation and circulation of vegetables in the
country. Recent years have formed a vegetable growing areas of focus:
184.108.40.206. General situation of safe vegetable production in our country
- Food Safety and Quality Management (FSQM)- the greens are really
becoming a concern of the whole society. However, during intensive increase
crop productivity to generate the product volumes and economic effects on a
high, the situation in the agricultural Food hygiene in Vietnam, especially in
green vegetables is causing much anxiety and pressing. Status vegetables
contaminated by pesticides, nitrate (NO3), heavy metals, microorganisms
damage has to alarming levels for several years.
Result analysis of toxic substances residues in vegetables and the
Institute of Plant Protection recently showed up to 30-50% of the samples of
vegetables with pesticide residue, heavy metals, nitrate and microorganisms
which causing disease but still selling widespread on the market.
- That is the main reason triggers the situation of acute foodborne for
the user. Therefore, a few years ago, the issue of safe vegetables has become
the concern of the whole society.
a. The major limitation of the production and supply of safe vegetables
Over recent decades, our country has implemented the program
conducted safe vegetables. From the government to the central ministries and
localities, especially from 2005 to date there have been many guidelines,
accessing and policies to ensure food hygiene in general and the development
of clean fruit and safe vegetable production .
Up to now, Vietnam has formed many areas production of vegetables,
fruit concentrate has promoted the movement of SV. Following the model of
organization of production, processing, trading and consumption of safe
vegetables in the local quite successful. However, in fact, production
problems and supply remains limitations:
+Firstly, the vegetable production is are seriously fragmented,
traditionally small scale, not planned to become
+Secondly, not yet built a distribution system, consumers reasonably
safe vegetables. Vegetable production costs higher cost conventional safe
vegetable production of the same type of people should not be encouraged to
develop safe vegetable production.
+Thirdly, safe vegetables still not be diversified in variety and are
concentrated in common vegetables such as tomatoes, cabbage,….In addition,
because safe vegetables do not retain pesticides, so they are very easily
influenced by natural factors.
+Fourthly, consumers are still doubt about the quality of the safe
vegetables which are sold in the market. Because, a lot of grocery stores say
that they selling safe vegetables but they also don’t know where is exactly
origin of these vegetables and how is quality of its?
+Finally, food hygiene issues for vegetables and fruits are not really
2.2.3 . The general situation of safe vegetable consumption in our country
220.127.116.11.Some channels of safe vegetables consumption.
- Vegetable production in general, safe vegetables in particular are
consumed in several forms as follows:
- Selling to collectors: a number of agents in the collection stand out
products after harvest for local consumption and the neighboring provinces.
Consuming vegetables through contracting: The cooperatives,
enterprises and organizations associated and contracted to purchase
vegetables for sale in supermarkets and stores.
- Consuming via some channels such as : industrial canteens, canteens
of kindergartens or schools ...
18.104.22.168. On the management of safe vegetables in the wholesale markets
Currently under 10/32 provinces reported consuming vegetables
wholesale market, safe vegetables (Quang Tri, Binh Duong, Ba Ria-Vung
Tau, Ha Noi, Da Nang, Lam Dong, Ho Chi Minh, Hung Yen, Vinh Phuc,
Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, some provinces
and cities (Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi, ...) annually in collaboration with the
management of wholesale markets organize inspections, take samples to
check the quality of vegetables. If detected pesticide residue samples or
nitrate content exceeding prescribed threshold will be written notices to the
Market management Board take accessing to control better quality of
vegetables and fruits. ( MARD, 2012)
However the management of quality vegetables at markets is
deployed but not yet widespread, not focused on the country, primarily the
self traders sourcing, procurement in other areas of consumption. Besides, the
production of safe vegetables is a new begins with certified qualified
production, vegetable production is produced from this region have not
formed a large volume of commodities.
Several places, safe vegetables has higher price than
vegetable’s by 10-20% that bring higher income for farmers who
cultivating safe vegetable method. Moreover, it also has much higher
production than rice, corn and some other crops (in some areas safe
vegetable production focus, average revenue from 400-500 million / ha /
year high reached 700-800 million / ha / year . (MARD)
Mostly, price of safe vegetables and normal vegetables not differ
much and often unstable, the price is generally higher at the beginning of
the season and down in the end of crop (higher than 1.5 to 2 times)
22.214.171.124. Identify the difficulties in producing safe vegetables and solutions
- The first, condition fragmented manufacturing, small scale,
manufacturing vegetable varieties F1 primarily imported varieties, low
responsibility of the majority of the production of safe vegetables are not
high, it is still state of the vegetable samples with pesticide residues,
nitrates, heavy metals, in the absence of regulations on nitrate levels in
the Ministry of Health of vegetables for processing
-The second, some provinces have developed, approved the project,
plans to develop the production of safe vegetables but no budget to
implement. Therefore, the work of planning and identification of safe
vegetable production areas of eligible has been slow.
- The third, the State management forces are not strong enough, and
scattered, assigned the responsibility of overlap between ministries. The legal
texts is not yet stable. Information dissemination and propaganda is not really
extensive; inspection, supervision and handling of violations is still limited.
-The fourth, a lot of models or localities have invested funds for safe
vegetable production but have not yet been mounted production and
-The fifth, the cooperation links between producers, traders, service
together with scientists, government policy still loose and unformed to
enhance the value chain of safe vegetables.
- The last, large numbers of consumers are not fully knowledgeable
about food safety, free trading habits also popular; whereas the production of
safe vegetables are applied by farmers, mainly carried out through the
programs and projects of the central government, provinces
General speaking, hence, the market has not yet formed a safe
consumption of vegetables , it still
are consumed with normal vegetables,
lack of information about the safety of vegetable products. The State
administration has not helped consumers distinguish between safe and secure
vegetables and another on the market
3.1. Select of the study site
Safe vegetable production characteristics mainly depends on water
source, land and the distance to the market of consumption.
Kim Dinh commue has three villages : Phu Tai I, Phu Tai II, and Chuan
Thung village. In there, area of Phu Tai I village mainly is planted flowers At
present, Phu Tai I village has about 12.6 hectares of flower with over 90
florist farm households.
Besides, Chuan Thung village has a smallest area of three villages
farmers in the village primarily cultivate rice and corn.
Therefore, for the study of the situation and the economic efficiency of
the production of SV, I have chosen the village of Phu Tai II which includes 3
hamlets ( or teams) are: Team 4, Team 5, Team 7 except Team 6. Because,
Team 6 is mainly residential area ,transportation land, markets , the school
system (including primary schools Kim Dinh and kindergarten) clinics, and
Provincial Historic Temple and irrigation pump system .... so there is little
space for vegetable growers.
Nervertheless, I have chosen 3 teams including: Team 4, team 5 teams,
Team 7 with the total surveyed 50 households ( 25 farm households following
SVP method and 25 farm households following traditional method)
3.2. Data collection
3.2.1. Secondary data collection
The data is mainly gathered from reports, magazines, on the websites
and in related studies to draw information about safe vegetable production at
Kim Dinh commune.
Data on a theoretical basis, Books, newspapers, the Searchable,
practice in Vietnam and the Internet is concerned.
Data on the characteristics of Kim
the studying location: The Chamber,
situation of the population economic
Dinh from reports.
distribution of land, labor Communal administration
and economic development
Data on area, yield and .Kim
production of safe vegetables Chamber,
situation crop restructuring
Data on the area of green Agricultural
vegetables in the commune, Station
3.2.2. Primary data collection
For collecting primary data, questionnaire method is used. It is the most
popular method used when the population and sample size are large. A
questionnaire includes a number of questions, printed in proper sequence, for
presenting to respondents for their answers. Each question is contributing to
research objectives. Moreover, questionnaires was designed with most of
close ended questions and only few open ended question. Hence, it was
designed to cater all areas and aspects of the study.
Object: Farmers who cultivating vegetables in the commune
Select Sample:: In order to perform this topic I focused the
investigation conducted a total of 50 interviews ,in
there having 25
plan normal vegetable production and
25 households follow
safe vegetable method
Gather expert opinion
- From professionals: Collect opinions of instructors, management staff
to take the right direction to ensure the objectivity of the research.
- From the Source monograph: By collecting the opinions of the safe
vegetable growers to be able to capture the information on the status of the
situation, determine the technical accessing may be applied in the actual
production and can offer solutions with high practical significance.
3.2.3. Analytical methods for data processing
126.96.36.199. Data processing
The data has been collected with the help of questionnaire. And it has
been analyzed and interpreted with the help of tables along with relevant
descriptions. Appropriate treatment has been done to the raw data and logical
conclusions are drawn based on the findings.
188.8.131.52. Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive research can be either quantitative and quantitative. It can
involve collections of quantitative information that can be tabulated along a
continuum in numerical form, such as scores on a test or the number of times
a person chooses to use a certain feature of a multimedia program, or it can
describe categories of information such as gender or patterns of interaction
when using technology in a group situation.
In addition, descriptive research involves gathering data that describe
events and then organizes, tabulates, depicts, and describes the data collection
( Glass & Hopkins, 1984). It’s often uses visual aids such as graphs, tables
and charts to aid the reader in understanding the data distribution. Because it
is hard to extract the full import of a large mass of raw data, descriptive
statistics are very important in reducing the data to manageable form.