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Currently, the production of green and safe vegetables are being promoted around the world. In vegetable production, people go in many directions such as organic production, producers with limited safety process apply chemical fertilizers and pesticides a

Currently, the production of green and safe vegetables are being promoted around the world. In vegetable production, people go in many directions such as organic production, producers with limited safety process apply chemical fertilizers and pesticides a

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is ranked in the Top 3 in the world production of vegetables after China and

India The situation and the economic efficiency of safe vegetable

production and its consumption in the world


The total value of safe vegetable production as of 1992 Korea's $ 7

billion to the total cultivation area of vegetables is 356 thousand hectare.

During the period 1970 to 1992, although the total area of arable land has

decreased by 10.6% but the area planted increased by 1.46 times greens


Israel is one of the largest exporters of agricultural products and the

world's leading technology in agricultural production. However, half of the

area is desert, extreme hot and dry conditions and lack of water completely.

But thanks to modern technology and advanced unique way, agricultural land

areas accounts for 24.2% of Israel, accounting for 2.5% of total agricultural

GDP and 3.6% of the total workforce in the country. Israel is 95% selfproduced food needs such as beef, green vegetables, fruits

Israeli agricultural output increased by 26% from 1999 to 2009, while

the number of farmers decreased from 23,500 to 17,000 people

Between 2004 and 2006, the vegetables and roots make up 35% of total

industry output, accounting for 20% of flowers, fruits (excluding citrus)

accounted for about 15%, citrus fruit accounted for 10%, cotton and cereals

other agricultural products accounted for 16%


Agriculture in the Empire of Japan was an important component of the

pre-war Japanese economy. Although Japan had only 16% of its land area

under cultivation before the Pacific War, over 45% of households made a


living from farming. Japanese cultivated land was mostly dedicated to rice,

which accounted for 15% of world rice production in 1937.

Japanese agriculture has been characterized as a "sick" sector because it

must contend with a variety of constraints, such as the rapidly diminishing

availability of arable land and falling agricultural incomes. The problem of

surplus rice was further aggravated by extensive changes in the diets of many

Japanese in the 1970s and 1980s. Even a major rice crop failure did not

reduce the accumulated stocks by more than 25% of the reserve. In 1990,

Japan was 67% self-sufficient in agricultural products and provided for

around 30% of its cereal and fodder needs.

2.2.2. The situation of farmland production safe vegetables in Vietnam General situation of vegetable production in Vietnam


2004, agriculture and forestry accounted




of Vietnam's gross domestic product (GDP), and between 1994 and 2004, the

sector grew at an annual rate of 4.1 percent. Agriculture's share of economic

output has declined in recent years, falling as a share of GDP from 42% in

1989 to 26% in 1999, as production in other sectors of the economy has risen.

However, agricultural employment was much higher than agriculture’s share

of GDP; in 2005, approximately 60 percent of the employed labor force was

engaged in agriculture, forestry, and fishing. Agricultural products accounted

for 30 percent of exports in 2005. The relaxation of the tate monopoly on rice

exports transformed the country into the world’s second or third largest rice

exporter. Other cash crops are coffee, cotton, peanuts, rubber, sugarcane,

and tea.


Table 2.1: The situation of farmland in Vietnam from 2007-2009
















( ton)


( ton)


( ton)











4 899 834

339 534

5 002 330

330 578

4 956 667

160 747

2 996 443

156 144

2961 669

142 595

2 832 753

Song Hong




82 543

947 143

85 948

1 018 904

89 359

1 094 037



15 563

179 419

16 681

195 605

18 093

211 852

76 982

766 829

80 761

826 152

80 620

828 024


North Central




370 644

6 194 730

383 046

6 510 387

404 757

6 928 400


South Central

47 427

708 316

46 646

695 107

49 459

713 473

61 956

1 274 728

67 075

1 482 361

74 299

1 635 944

69 723

892 631

70 923

940 225

73 094

1014 715

191 538

3 319 055

198 402

3 392 694

207 905

3 564 268








Cuu Long


Source: General Statistics Office 2006-2010

- The vegetable concentrate, intensive coastal cities, towns and

industrial areas 46% and 45% of the acreage vegetable production in the

country. Vegetable production in this region is mainly supplied to the

domestic market. Vegetable species greatly varies areas including 60-80 in the

winter-spring crop of vegetables, 20-30 in the summer vegetables.

- The production of vegetables in the direction of commodities, crop

rotation with food crops in the plains, accounting for 54% of area and 55% of


vegetable production in the country. Vegetables in this area focus on

processing, exporting and regulation and circulation of vegetables in the

country. Recent years have formed a vegetable growing areas of focus: General situation of safe vegetable production in our country

- Food Safety and Quality Management (FSQM)- the greens are really

becoming a concern of the whole society. However, during intensive increase

crop productivity to generate the product volumes and economic effects on a

high, the situation in the agricultural Food hygiene in Vietnam, especially in

green vegetables is causing much anxiety and pressing. Status vegetables

contaminated by pesticides, nitrate (NO3), heavy metals, microorganisms

damage has to alarming levels for several years.


Result analysis of toxic substances residues in vegetables and the

Institute of Plant Protection recently showed up to 30-50% of the samples of

vegetables with pesticide residue, heavy metals, nitrate and microorganisms

which causing disease but still selling widespread on the market.

- That is the main reason triggers the situation of acute foodborne for

the user. Therefore, a few years ago, the issue of safe vegetables has become

the concern of the whole society.

a. The major limitation of the production and supply of safe vegetables

Over recent decades, our country has implemented the program

conducted safe vegetables. From the government to the central ministries and

localities, especially from 2005 to date there have been many guidelines,

accessing and policies to ensure food hygiene in general and the development

of clean fruit and safe vegetable production .

Up to now, Vietnam has formed many areas production of vegetables,

fruit concentrate has promoted the movement of SV. Following the model of

organization of production, processing, trading and consumption of safe

vegetables in the local quite successful. However, in fact, production

problems and supply remains limitations:


+Firstly, the vegetable production is are seriously fragmented,

traditionally small scale, not planned to become

specialized vegetable

production region.

+Secondly, not yet built a distribution system, consumers reasonably

safe vegetables. Vegetable production costs higher cost conventional safe

vegetable production of the same type of people should not be encouraged to

develop safe vegetable production.

+Thirdly, safe vegetables still not be diversified in variety and are

concentrated in common vegetables such as tomatoes, cabbage,….In addition,

because safe vegetables do not retain pesticides, so they are very easily

influenced by natural factors.

+Fourthly, consumers are still doubt about the quality of the safe

vegetables which are sold in the market. Because, a lot of grocery stores say

that they selling safe vegetables but they also don’t know where is exactly

origin of these vegetables and how is quality of its?

+Finally, food hygiene issues for vegetables and fruits are not really

in control.

2.2.3 . The general situation of safe vegetable consumption in our country channels of safe vegetables consumption.

- Vegetable production in general, safe vegetables in particular are

consumed in several forms as follows:

- Selling to collectors: a number of agents in the collection stand out

products after harvest for local consumption and the neighboring provinces.


Consuming vegetables through contracting: The cooperatives,

enterprises and organizations associated and contracted to purchase

vegetables for sale in supermarkets and stores.

- Consuming via some channels such as : industrial canteens, canteens

of kindergartens or schools ...

23 On the management of safe vegetables in the wholesale markets

Currently under 10/32 provinces reported consuming vegetables

wholesale market, safe vegetables (Quang Tri, Binh Duong, Ba Ria-Vung

Tau, Ha Noi, Da Nang, Lam Dong, Ho Chi Minh, Hung Yen, Vinh Phuc,

Bac Lieu).

Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, some provinces

and cities (Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi, ...) annually in collaboration with the

management of wholesale markets organize inspections, take samples to

check the quality of vegetables. If detected pesticide residue samples or

nitrate content exceeding prescribed threshold will be written notices to the

Market management Board take accessing to control better quality of

vegetables and fruits. ( MARD, 2012)

However the management of quality vegetables at markets is

deployed but not yet widespread, not focused on the country, primarily the

self traders sourcing, procurement in other areas of consumption. Besides, the

production of safe vegetables is a new begins with certified qualified

production, vegetable production is produced from this region have not

formed a large volume of commodities.

- Price

Several places, safe vegetables has higher price than


vegetable’s by 10-20% that bring higher income for farmers who

cultivating safe vegetable method. Moreover, it also has much higher

production than rice, corn and some other crops (in some areas safe

vegetable production focus, average revenue from 400-500 million / ha /

year high reached 700-800 million / ha / year . (MARD)

Mostly, price of safe vegetables and normal vegetables not differ

much and often unstable, the price is generally higher at the beginning of

the season and down in the end of crop (higher than 1.5 to 2 times)

24 Identify the difficulties in producing safe vegetables and solutions

- The first, condition fragmented manufacturing, small scale,

manufacturing vegetable varieties F1 primarily imported varieties, low










responsibility of the majority of the production of safe vegetables are not

high, it is still state of the vegetable samples with pesticide residues,

nitrates, heavy metals, in the absence of regulations on nitrate levels in

the Ministry of Health of vegetables for processing

-The second, some provinces have developed, approved the project,

plans to develop the production of safe vegetables but no budget to

implement. Therefore, the work of planning and identification of safe

vegetable production areas of eligible has been slow.

- The third, the State management forces are not strong enough, and

scattered, assigned the responsibility of overlap between ministries. The legal

texts is not yet stable. Information dissemination and propaganda is not really

extensive; inspection, supervision and handling of violations is still limited.

-The fourth, a lot of models or localities have invested funds for safe

vegetable production but have not yet been mounted production and

consumption markets

-The fifth, the cooperation links between producers, traders, service

together with scientists, government policy still loose and unformed to

enhance the value chain of safe vegetables.

- The last, large numbers of consumers are not fully knowledgeable

about food safety, free trading habits also popular; whereas the production of

safe vegetables are applied by farmers, mainly carried out through the

programs and projects of the central government, provinces

General speaking, hence, the market has not yet formed a safe

consumption of vegetables , it still

are consumed with normal vegetables,


lack of information about the safety of vegetable products. The State

administration has not helped consumers distinguish between safe and secure

vegetables and another on the market




3.1. Select of the study site

Safe vegetable production characteristics mainly depends on water

source, land and the distance to the market of consumption.

Kim Dinh commue has three villages : Phu Tai I, Phu Tai II, and Chuan

Thung village. In there, area of Phu Tai I village mainly is planted flowers At

present, Phu Tai I village has about 12.6 hectares of flower with over 90

florist farm households.

Besides, Chuan Thung village has a smallest area of three villages

farmers in the village primarily cultivate rice and corn.

Therefore, for the study of the situation and the economic efficiency of

the production of SV, I have chosen the village of Phu Tai II which includes 3

hamlets ( or teams) are: Team 4, Team 5, Team 7 except Team 6. Because,

Team 6 is mainly residential area ,transportation land, markets , the school

system (including primary schools Kim Dinh and kindergarten) clinics, and

Provincial Historic Temple and irrigation pump system .... so there is little

space for vegetable growers.

Nervertheless, I have chosen 3 teams including: Team 4, team 5 teams,

Team 7 with the total surveyed 50 households ( 25 farm households following

SVP method and 25 farm households following traditional method)

3.2. Data collection

3.2.1. Secondary data collection

The data is mainly gathered from reports, magazines, on the websites

and in related studies to draw information about safe vegetable production at

Kim Dinh commune.





Collecting placement


Data on a theoretical basis, Books, newspapers, the Searchable,

practice in Vietnam and the Internet is concerned.


Data on the characteristics of Kim



Statistical Synthesized


the studying location: The Chamber,


situation of the population economic



Dinh from reports.


distribution of land, labor Communal administration

and economic development

situation, infrastructure.

Data on area, yield and .Kim


production of safe vegetables Chamber,


situation crop restructuring

Statistical Studying





Communal administration

Data on the area of green Agricultural

Extension Selected,

vegetables in the commune, Station


Kim Dinh



Dinh synthesized




3.2.2. Primary data collection

Direct interview

For collecting primary data, questionnaire method is used. It is the most

popular method used when the population and sample size are large. A

questionnaire includes a number of questions, printed in proper sequence, for

presenting to respondents for their answers. Each question is contributing to

research objectives. Moreover, questionnaires was designed with most of

close ended questions and only few open ended question. Hence, it was

designed to cater all areas and aspects of the study.

Object: Farmers who cultivating vegetables in the commune

Kim Dinh

Select Sample:: In order to perform this topic I focused the

investigation conducted a total of 50 interviews ,in


there having 25


plan normal vegetable production and

25 households follow

safe vegetable method

Gather expert opinion

- From professionals: Collect opinions of instructors, management staff

to take the right direction to ensure the objectivity of the research.

- From the Source monograph: By collecting the opinions of the safe

vegetable growers to be able to capture the information on the status of the

situation, determine the technical accessing may be applied in the actual

production and can offer solutions with high practical significance.

3.2.3. Analytical methods for data processing Data processing

The data has been collected with the help of questionnaire. And it has

been analyzed and interpreted with the help of tables along with relevant

descriptions. Appropriate treatment has been done to the raw data and logical

conclusions are drawn based on the findings. Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive research can be either quantitative and quantitative. It can

involve collections of quantitative information that can be tabulated along a

continuum in numerical form, such as scores on a test or the number of times

a person chooses to use a certain feature of a multimedia program, or it can

describe categories of information such as gender or patterns of interaction

when using technology in a group situation.

In addition, descriptive research involves gathering data that describe

events and then organizes, tabulates, depicts, and describes the data collection

( Glass & Hopkins, 1984). It’s often uses visual aids such as graphs, tables

and charts to aid the reader in understanding the data distribution. Because it

is hard to extract the full import of a large mass of raw data, descriptive

statistics are very important in reducing the data to manageable form.


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