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In order to certificate agro products of producers get standard of SV, the producers must to conduct follow by regulation of Regulation and Law which issued by MARD. Moreover, to received SV certification of MARD, producer have to go over the under regula

In order to certificate agro products of producers get standard of SV, the producers must to conduct follow by regulation of Regulation and Law which issued by MARD. Moreover, to received SV certification of MARD, producer have to go over the under regula

Tải bản đầy đủ - 0trang

producers must to conduct follow by regulation of Regulation and Law which

issued by MARD. Moreover, to received SV certification of MARD, producer

have to go over the under regulations.

-



Pursuant to the Government's Decree No. 86/CP of July 18, 2003,



defining the functions, tasks, powers and organizational structure of the

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development;

-



Pursuant to Goods Quality Ordinance No. 18/1999/PL-UBTVQH10



of December 24, 1999 of the National Assembly Standing Committee;

-



Pursuant to Food Hygiene and Safety Ordinance No. 12/2003/PL-



UBTVQH11 of July 26, 2003 of the National Assembly Standing Committee;

-



Pursuant to the Government's Decree No. 163/2004/ND-CP of



September 7, 2004, detailing the implementation of a number of articles of the

Food Hygiene and Safety Ordinance;

-



Pursuant to the Government's Decree No. 179/2004/ND-CP of



October 21, 2004, providing for the state management of quality of goods and

products;

At the proposals of the director of the Cultivation Department, the

director of the Plant Protection Department and the director of the Science

and Technology Department

2.1.4. The concept of product consumption and market

2.1.4.1. The concept of product consumption

a. Consumption

Consumption is a major concept in economics and is also studied by



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many other social sciences. Economists are particularly interested in the

relationship



between



consumption



and



income,



as



modeled



with



the consumption function ( Lincoln London, 1984)

The elasticity of demand for consumption goods is also a function of

who performs chores in households and how their spouses compensate them

for opportunity costs of home production.

b. Distribution channels

A distribution channel is the network of individuals and organizations

involved in getting a product or service from the producer to the customer.

Distribution channels are also known as marketing channels or marketing

distribution channels.( Kotler, Keller and Burton, 2009.) Role of Distribution

Channels

Produced goods and services have to find a way to reach consumers.

The role of the distribution channel is to transfer goods and services

efficiently. They can either be sent to a retail store or directly to a customer's

residence.

There are advantages and disadvantages to direct distribution channels.

The same goes for indirect channels. It is the job of the managers and others

involved in corporate governance to find the most effective means based on

the firm's specific needs.





Direct Distribution Channel



Producers Custom

ers

Figure 2.1 : Direct Distribution Channel



Direct channels tend to be more expensive to start running

and can sometimes require significant capital investment. Warehouses,



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logistics systems, trucks and driving staff need to be set up. However, once

those are in place, the direct channel is likely to be shorter and less costly than

an indirect channel.



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P

R

O

D

U

C

E

R

S

I

N

T

E

R

M

E

D

I

A

R

Y

C

U

S

T

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M

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R

S

PRODUCERS INTERMEDIARY CUSTOMERS





Indirect Distribution Channel



Figure 2.2: Indirect Distribution Channel



The most challenging part of indirect distribution channels is that



another party has to be entrusted with the manufacturer's products and

customer interaction. However, the most successful logistics companies are

experts at delivering receivables in a way that most manufacturers cannot be.

Indirect channels also free the manufacturer from any startup costs.

With the right relationship, they are much simpler to manage than direct

distribution channels.

2.1.4.2. The concept and function of the market

Market is generally understood to mean a particular place or locality

where goods are sold and purchased. However, in economics, by the term

market we do not mean any particular place or locality in which goods are

bought and sold. The idea of a particular locality or geographical place is not

necessary to the concept of the market.(Malkiel, Burton G. 1987)

Thus, an economist say that: “Economists understand by the term

market not any particular market place in which things are bought and sold

but the whole of any region in which buyers and sellers are in such free

intercourse with one another that the price of the same good tends to equality

easily and quickly”.(Cournot- Frenc1990)

Further, it is not-worthy that because in a market, there is close and free



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communication between various buyers and sellers price of a homogeneous

commodity settled between different sellers and buyers tends to be the same.

Thus, the essentials of a market are:

(a) Commodity which is dealt with

(b) The existence of buyers and sellers

(c) A place, be it a certain region, a country or the entire world

(d) Such communication between buyers and sellers that only one price

should prevail for the same commodity at the same time.

2.2. Practical basis

2.2.1. The situation of vegetable production in the world

Currently, the production of green and safe



vegetables are being



promoted around the world. In vegetable production, people go in many

directions such as organic production, producers with limited safety process

apply chemical fertilizers and pesticides as recommended, not to pesticide

residues and chemicals vegetables.

According to the "vegetable industry in Tropical Asia: India. Overview

of production and trade : 8.0 million ha (2005). Production: 83.1 million tons

- Consumption: 183 gr / person / day (2005) (provisional publication number)

FAOSTAT, 2007 or 146 grams / person / day: from 2004 to 2005 (Calculated

from data NSS).

The main vegetables: peppers, onions, eggplant, tomato, cabbage,

beans, broccoli, cauliflower. Plants for export: Fresh and processed 1.6

million tons, equivalent to 508 million dollars (excluding potatoes), which

include export of fresh onions, mushrooms, peas, eggplant, corn beans. These

products are produced according to the production groups in the garden, farm,

or organic farm.

Processed products include onions, frozen vegetables, cucumber(Greg

I. Johnson, Katinka Weinberger, Wu Mei-huey shows - Croplands)... Vietnam



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is ranked in the Top 3 in the world production of vegetables after China and

India

2.2.2.1. The situation and the economic efficiency of safe vegetable

production and its consumption in the world





Korea



The total value of safe vegetable production as of 1992 Korea's $ 7

billion to the total cultivation area of vegetables is 356 thousand hectare.

During the period 1970 to 1992, although the total area of arable land has

decreased by 10.6% but the area planted increased by 1.46 times greens





Israel



Israel is one of the largest exporters of agricultural products and the

world's leading technology in agricultural production. However, half of the

area is desert, extreme hot and dry conditions and lack of water completely.

But thanks to modern technology and advanced unique way, agricultural land

areas accounts for 24.2% of Israel, accounting for 2.5% of total agricultural

GDP and 3.6% of the total workforce in the country. Israel is 95% selfproduced food needs such as beef, green vegetables, fruits

Israeli agricultural output increased by 26% from 1999 to 2009, while

the number of farmers decreased from 23,500 to 17,000 people

Between 2004 and 2006, the vegetables and roots make up 35% of total

industry output, accounting for 20% of flowers, fruits (excluding citrus)

accounted for about 15%, citrus fruit accounted for 10%, cotton and cereals

other agricultural products accounted for 16%





Japan



Agriculture in the Empire of Japan was an important component of the

pre-war Japanese economy. Although Japan had only 16% of its land area

under cultivation before the Pacific War, over 45% of households made a



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