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3 Acids, Bases, and Neutralization Reactions

3 Acids, Bases, and Neutralization Reactions

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Index

HDPE (high-density

polyethylene), 511, 512

Heart

ion concentration and, 884

nitroglycerin and, 976

Heat, 166, 169. See also

Enthalpy(ies) (H)

of combustion, 185

condensation, 457, 459

of deposition, 457, 459

of formation, 190

of freezing, 457, 459

of fusion, 457, 458

internal energy change and,

172–73

of reaction, 179–81

reversible flow of, 817

sign conventions for, 172

specific, 181–83

of sublimation, 458

transferring energy and, 169

of vaporization, 458

Heat capacity, 181–83

molar, 182

Heat exhaustion, 187

Heating curves, 459–60

Heat packs, 534

Heat stroke, 187

Heavy water, 956, 957

Heavy water reactor, 935

Heisenberg, Werner, 225, 227

Helium–4, 930

Helium (He), 8, 52, 961

in atmosphere, 777

burning of, 939

deep-sea diving and, 544

electron configuration of,

237

formation of, 939

properties of, 286t

Helium ion (He2+ ), bond order

of, 375

Heme, 1009–10

Hemoglobin, 119, 559, 562, 669,

721, 737, 1009–10

Hemolysis, 555

Henderson-Hasselbach

equation, 731, 732–33, 735

Henry’s law, 542–43

Henry’s law constant, 542–43

Heptane, 1045, 1050

viscosity of, 455

hepta- prefix, 68

Héroult, Paul, 895

Hertz (Hz), 214

Hess’s law, 187–89, 304, 305,

327, 640

enthalpy diagram

illustrating, 189

Heterogeneous catalysis, 608–9

Heterogeneous equilibria,

641–44

Heterogeneous mixture, 10, 11



Heteronuclear diatomic

molecules, 384–86

Hevea brasiliensis tree, 513

Hexafluorobenzene, 478

Hexafluorosilicic acid, 965

Hexagonal close packing,

488–89

Hexagonal lattice, 483–84

Hexane, 1045

solubility of, 539

viscosity of, 455

Hexanol, solubility of, 539

hexa- prefix, 68

Hexatriene, 322

HFC-134a compound, 783

HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons),

783, 790

High-density polyethylene

(HDPE), 511, 512

Highest occupied molecular

orbital (HOMO), 385–86

High Plains Aquifer, 794. See

also Ogallala Aquifer

High-spin complex, 1025

High-temperature pebble-bed

reactor, 936

H+ ions

concentrations of

pH scale, 680–82

rate law and, 681

in water, 672

Histidine, 1069

HMG-CoA reductase, 342

Holes, 506–8

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Sr., 21

HOMO (highest occupied

molecular orbital), 385–86

Homogeneous catalysis, 607–8

Homogeneous equilibria, 641

Homogeneous mixture, 10, 11.

See also Solution(s)

Homonuclear diatomic

molecules, 376–86

Hot-air balloons, 406

Household chemicals, 6

Human body

elements in, 8

temperature regulation in,

186–87

Human society, entropy and,

828

Hund’s rule, 237–39

Hurricane Wilma of 2005, 434

Hybridization, 359

Hybrid orbitals

molecular geometry and,

359–65

involving d orbitals, 363,

368

sp, 360–61

sp2 and sp3, 361–62

triple bonds and, 368

Hydrates, 536, 892n



Hydration, 533, 711

waters of, 536

Hydraulic fracturing, 797. See

also Fracking

Hydrazine, 901, 974, 995

Hydrazobenzene, 395

Hydrazoic acid, 719

Hydride ions, 66, 278, 283, 957,

959–60

Hydrides, 278, 283

binary, 706

interstitial, 960

metallic, 960

molecular, 960

Hydrobromic acid (HBr), 134

Hydrocarbon fractions, from

petroleum, 1050

Hydrocarbon(s), 69–71,

1044–50

as atmospheric pollutants,

784

branched-chain, 1045

combustion of, 89, 789

derivatives of, 70–71

immiscibility of, 538

as pollutants, 787

saturated (alkanes), 70–71,

1044, 1045–49

cycloalkanes, 1049

nomenclature of, 1046–48

reactions of, 1049

structural isomers of,

1045–46

structures of, 1045

straight-chain, 1045

structural and molecular

formulas for, 71

unburned, 610

unsaturated

alkenes, 1051–53

alkynes, 1053–54

aromatic, 1044, 1056

viscosities of, 455

Hydrochloric acid, 133, 134,

136, 137, 142, 283, 579

covalent bonds in, 360

ionization of solution of, 127

reactions of

with cobalt(II) chloride,

654

with magnesium, 142

with nickel, 535–36

with sodium hydroxide,

136, 672

titration with caustic soda

(NaOH), 738–40, 745

with zinc, 858

Hydrocyanic acid, 687, 993

Hydroelectric energy, 198

Hydrofluoric acid, 116, 134, 965

properties of, 687

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs),

783, 790



I-15



Hydrogen (H), 8, 9, 55, 56,

282–83, 436, 956–60

activity series of, 144

in atmosphere, 777

atomic emission of, 219

binary compounds of,

959–60

burning of, 939

chemistry of, 282

combustion of, 181

covalent bonds in, 298, 307,

358

electron affinity of, 272

electron configuration of,

237

electronic transitions in, 223

energy levels in, 221, 229

energy states of, 221–22,

221–23

formation of, 939

fuel value and composition

of, 197

group trends for, 282–83

ionization energy of, 282

isotopes of, 438, 956–57

line spectrum of, 220

molecular, 56, 874, 957

attractions and repulsions

in, 307

covalent bonding in, 307

molecular orbitals in,

373–76

reaction with oxygen, 890

nuclear spin in, 236

orbitals of, 228, 230–31,

234–35, 373–75

oxidation number of, 141

probability density in s

orbitals of, 231, 232

production of, 958–59

properties of, 9, 282–83,

957–58

reactions of, 278, 282–83

with alkali metals, 278

with ethylene, 609

with nonmetals, 282–83

with oxygen, 169, 171,

179

Schrodinger’s equation for,

226–27

subshells of, 230

uses of, 959

Hydrogenation, 1054, 1077

Hydrogen bomb, 938, 938n

Hydrogen bonding, 449–52

aqueous solubility and,

538–39

between complementary

base pairs, 1079, 1080

solution formation and, 533,

535

trends in, 449–50

in water, 450, 451–52



I-16



Index



Hydrogen bromide, standard

enthalpy of formation for,

190

Hydrogen carbonates, 983

Hydrogen chloride, 319, 327,

328, 672

bond length of, 313

dipole moment of, 313, 319

electronegativity difference,

313

melting and boiling points

of, 446

standard enthalpy of

formation for, 190

Hydrogen compounds of

nitrogen, 973–75

Hydrogen cyanide, 120, 400, 993

Hydrogen economy, 339, 958

Hydrogen fluoride

melting and boiling points

of, 446

standard enthalpy of

formation for, 190

Hydrogen fuel cells, 889–90

Hydrogen halides, 286, 964–65

bond lengths and dipole

moments of, 313

charge separation in, 314

Hydrogen iodide, standard

enthalpy of formation for,

190

Hydrogen ion, 63, 132, 133

Hydrogen-PEM fuel cell, 890

Hydrogen peroxide, 56, 284,

970, 1063

decomposition of, 610

reaction with bromide ions,

607–8

structural formula for, 57

Hydrogen sulfates, 973

Hydrogen sulfide, 118, 138, 400,

624, 971

critical temperature and

pressure of, 461

Hydrogen sulfites, 676, 972

Hydroiodic acid, 134

Hydrolysis, 702

of esters, 1064

Hydronium ions, 141, 673, 702,

704

Hydrophilic colloids, 560–62

Hydrophobic colloids, 560–62

Hydroquinone, 800–801

Hydrosulfide ion, 697

Hydroxide ions, 66, 133

Hydroxides

of alkali metals, ionic,

685–86

of alkaline earth metals,

ionic, 685–86

amphoteric, 758–59

base-insoluble, 762

ionic, 685–86



metal, 134, 136

solubility of, 758–59

Hydroxyapatite, 755, 772

Hydroxylamine, 697, 698, 974

Hydroxyl group, 1060

Hydroxyl radical, 809, 940, 949

Hypertension, 404

Hypertonic solutions, 555

Hypervalent molecules, 324

Hypobromous acid, 707

Hypochlorite ion, 697, 719

Hypochlorite salts, 966

Hypochlorous acid, 286, 687,

707, 708

Hypoiodous acid, 707

hypo- prefix, 64, 65, 67

Hypothermia, 187

Hypothesis (tentative

explanation), 15

Hypotonic solutions, 555

Ibuprofen, 116, 568

Ice, 7, 451–52

melting of, 173–74, 181, 814,

815, 816, 819, 837

structure of, 825f

Ice Age, 789

Ice packs, 534

ICF (intracellular fluid), 884–85

Iconic compounds

solubilities of, 754

-ic suffix, 63, 67

Ideal bond angles, 349

Ideal engine, 816

Ideal gas, 532, 551

defined, 408

entropy and, 820

equation, 551

Raoult’s law and, 551

reversible isothermal

expansion of, 818

Ideal-gas constant, 554

Ideal-gas equation, 408–12, 421,

551

gas densities and molar

mass, 412–14

gas laws and, 410–12

gas volumes in chemical

reactions, 414–15

Ideal-gas law, 554

Ideal solutions, 550–51

Ignarro, Louis J., 976

Iron(III) or ferric ion (Fe3+), 63

Imaging, medical, 236, 250

Immiscible liquids, 538

Indicators, acid-base, 153–54,

744–46

titrating with, 744–46

Indigo, 1089

Indium (In), 504

electron configuration of,

241



Indole, 1089

Industrial Revolution, 789

Inert gases, 286, 294

Inexact numbers, 22

Inorganic compounds, 62

nomenclature of, 62–69

acids, 67–68

binary molecular

compounds, 68–69

ionic compounds,

62–69

Insoluble chlorides, 762

Insoluble phosphates, 763

Instantaneous reaction rate,

579–80

Insulin, 95

Integrated rate law, 587–88, 590

for zero-order reactions, 591

Intensity, luminous, 15

Intensive properties, 11

Intergovernmental Panel on

Climate Change, 21

Interhalogen compounds, 393,

965–66

Intermediates, 600–601

Intermetallic compounds, 492,

493

Intermolecular forces, 442–79

attractive, 427, 428

covalent bond vs., 445

effect on gas pressure, 427,

428

flowchart for determining,

453

in gases, 445

ion-dipole, 446

in liquids, 445

molecular geometry, 448

pressure and, 445–46

Raoult’s law and, 551

in smectic phases, 468

in solids, 445

in solution formation,

532–33

surface tension and, 456

van der Waals forces

comparison of, 453

dipole-dipole, 446

hydrogen bonding,

449–52

London dispersion, 447

Internal energy (E), 171–72

change in, 171, 172–73

relating to heat and work,

172–73

defined, 171

sign conventions for, 173

as state function, 174–75

International Union of

Chemistry, 1047

International Union of Pure

and Applied Chemistry

(IUPAC), 54, 1047



Internuclear axis, 366

Interstitial alloys, 492

Interstitial carbides, 983

Interstitial hydrides, 960

Intracellular fluid (ICF), 884–85

Invert sugar, 1075

Iodide ion, 66

Iodine–131, 928, 948

Iodine (I), 8, 263, 285, 962, 963,

964

bonding atomic radius of,

263

properties of, 285

reaction with methane, 666

state at room temperature

and standard pressure,

445

Iodine bromide, 393

Iodine pentafluoride, 440

Iodized salt, 964

1-Iodododecane, 434

Ion concentration, measuring

using conductivity, 125

Ion-dipole forces, 446, 452, 453

solution formation and,

532–33

Ion-dipole interaction, 1021

Ion-exchange column, 805

Ion exchange for water

softening, 805

Ionic bonds, 301–6, 453, 482,

498

electron configurations of

ions and, 305–6

energetics of formation,

302–5

polyatomic ions, 315, 317

transition-metal ions, 306

Ionic carbides, 983

Ionic compounds, 60–62

coordination numbers in,

498–501

dissolution or precipitation

of, 748

electrolytic behavior of, 135

electrolytic strength of, 127,

132

formation of, 60–61, 302

lattice energies for, 303

names and formulas of,

62–66

solubilities of, 129–30, 543

in water, 125–26

Ionic equation(s), 131–32

complete, 131

net, 131

writing, 132

Ionic hydrides, 959–60

Ionic liquids, 454–55

Ionic radii, 265–67

in an isoelectronic series,

267

periodic trends in, 265–67



Index

predicting relative sizes of

atomic and, 265

Ionic solids, 482, 498–502

empirical formula and

density of, 501–2

properties of, 482, 498

structures of, 498–501

in water, 534, 826

Ionization

percent, 689, 692–94

using the quadratic

equation to calculate,

693–94

photoionization, 778, 780,

805

Ionization energy, 268–72, 301

of alkaline earth elements,

281–82

electron affinity vs., 272–73

electron configurations of

ions, 271–72

electronegativity and, 309

first, 268

of metals vs. nonmetals, 274

periodic trends in, 269–71,

270

second, 268

variations in successive,

268–69

Ionizing radiation, 938

Ion pair, 558–59

and colligative properties,

558

Ion-product constant, 679, 700

Ion product of water, 679–80

Ion(s), 52, 58–62

calcium, 61, 63

carbonate, 697

charges of, 59–60, 303, 306

chemical symbols for, 58

complex, 1002

concentration, calculating,

728

electron configurations of,

271–72

formation of complex,

756–58

in human heart, 884

hydride, 278, 283

hydrogen, 132, 133

hydroxide, 133

isoelectronic series of,

266–67

molar concentrations of, 148

monatomic, 140

negative (See Anion(s))

oxide, 275, 278, 284

peroxide, 279, 284, 289

polyatomic, 59, 64, 315, 317,

323–24

positive (See Cation(s))

precipitation and separation

of, 759–62



properties of, 59

required by organisms, 61

sizes of, 262–67

spectator, 131

sulfide, 761

superoxide, 279, 284

transition-metal, 306

Iridium, 502, 523

Iron–58, 919

Iron–59, 928

Iron (Fe), 8, 487, 491–93

corrosion of, 139, 891–93

density of, 20

galvanized, 892

molecular, 874

in myoglobin and

hemoglobin, 1011

oxidation of, 139, 144, 816

specific heat of, 182

Iron(II) fluoride, 896

Iron(III), 1007

Iron(III) oxide, 892, 968

Iron(II) or ferrous ion

(Fe2+), 63

Iron(II) sulfide, 971

Iron oxide, reaction with carbon

monoxide, 667

Iron pyrite, 483

Iron pyrite (fool’s gold), 971

Irreversible process, 816–18

Isoamyl, 1064

Isobutane (2-methylpropane),

1046

Isoelectronic series of ions,

266–67

Isolated system, 169

Isoleucine, 1069

Isomerism, 339, 1014–18

alkane, 1045–46

cis-trans, 396

coordination-sphere, 1015

drawing, 1052–53

geometric, 1015, 1051

linkage, 1014–15

optical, 1016–18

stereoisomerism, 1014,

1015–18

structural, 1014–15

Isomers, 70, 846

Isooctane

(2,2,4-trimethylpentane),

1050

Isopentane (2-methylbutane),

1046

Iso- prefix, 1046

Isoprene, 513

Isopropyl alcohol (2-propanol),

70, 101–2, 473, 1060

Isopropyl group, 1047

Isotactic polypropylene, 528

Isothermal process, 817

Isotonic solutions, 555

Isotopes, 49–50, 908



abundance of, 51

of hydrogen, 956–57

stable, with even and odd

numbers of protons and

neutrons, 916

synthetic, 919, 921

-ite suffix, 64, 65

-ium suffix, 63

IUPAC (International Union

of Pure and Applied

Chemistry), 54, 1047

Jackson, Michael, 21

Joule (J), 168, 929

Joule, James, 168

Karat scale, 528

Kelvin, Lord (William

Thomson), 406

Kelvin scale, 15, 17, 406

Kerosene, 1050

Ketones, 807, 1061–62

Kidney stones, 748

Kilogram (kg), 15, 17

Kilojoules (kJ), 168

Kilo prefix, 16

Kilowatt-hour (kWh), 879

Kimax, 987

Kinetic energy, 166–68

temperature and, 596

Kinetic-isotope effect, 957

Kinetic-molecular theory,

418–21

gas laws and, 420–21

Kinetics, chemical. See Reaction

rates

Knocking characteristics of

gasoline, 1050

Kroto, Harry, 516

Krypton (Kr), 240, 286–87

in atmosphere, 777

condensed electron

configurations of, 240

properties of, 286

Krypton compound, 961

Labels, food, 195

Lactic acid, 394, 718, 731–32, 1062

Lactoferrin, 1012

Lactones, 807

Lactose, 1074, 1075

Lanthanide contraction, 999

Lanthanides, 240–41. See also

Rare earth elements

Lanthanum (La), 161, 241

Large Hadron Collider (LHC),

919

Lattice energy, 302–4

calculation of, 304–5

defined, 302

magnitudes of, 303–4

value of, 302



I-17



Lattice points, 483

lattice vectors and, 483

motif and, 485

Lattice structure, crystal, 485

Lattice vectors, 483

Lauryl alcohol, 570

Lauterbur, Paul, 236

Lavoisier, Antoine, 82, 966

Lawrence, Ernest, 947

Laws

of combining volumes, 406

of conservation of mass, 82

of constant composition,

10, 42

of definite proportions, 10

of mass action, 633

of multiple proportions,

42–43

scientific, 15

LCDs (liquid crystal displays), 469

LDPE (low-density

polyethylene), 511, 512

Lead–206, 923, 924

Lead (Pb), 8, 984

oxidation in aqueous

solution, 144

Lead-acid battery, 886–87

Lead crystal glass, 987

Lead(II) chloride, 641

Lead(II) or plumbous ion

(Pb2+), 63

Lead iodide, 128–29

Lead nitrate, 128

Lead poisoning, 1009

Le Châtelier, Henri-Louis, 650,

667

Le Châtelier’s principle, 650–60,

726

catalyst effects, 657–60

change in reactant or

product concentrations,

651–52

nitric oxide emission control

and, 659–60

temperature changes,

654–57

volume and pressure

changes, 652–54

LEDs (light-emitting diodes), 5,

212, 480, 507–8, 513, 526

Lemon juice, as household acid,

132

Length, SI unit of, 15, 17

Leucine, 1069

Leukemia, 940

Leveling effect, 677

Levorotary, 1018

Lewis, G. N., 300, 306, 710

Lewis acids and bases, 710–13

crystal-field theory and, 1021

electron-pair acceptor/donor

concept, 710–11

metal-ligand bond and, 1005



I-18



Index



Lewis dot structures. See Lewis

structures

Lewis electron-dot symbols. See

Lewis symbols

Lewis structures, 307–8

alternative, 317–19

dominant, 318

drawing, 315–17

with multiple bonds,

316–17

for a polyatomic ion, 317

formal charge, 317–19

procedure followed in

drawing, 315–16

resonance structures

and, 320

Lewis symbols, 300–301

LHC (Large Hadron Collider),

919

Life, entropy and, 828

LifeStraw, 796

Ligand exchange reaction, 1038

Ligands, 1002, 1007–12

bidentate, 1007

color effects of, 1019

in living systems, 1009–12

monodentate, 1007

nomenclature of, 1012–13

polydentate (chelating

agents), 1007–9, 1033

weak field and strong field,

1024

Ligand-to-metal charge-transfer

(LMCT) transition, 1028,

1037

Light

electron excitation by,

385–86

monochromatic, 219

scattering by colloidal

particles, 559–60

speed of, 214

visible, 214

wave nature of, 214–16

Light absorption, molecular

orbitals and, 385

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs), 5,

212, 480, 507–8, 513, 526

Light water reactors, 935

“Like dissolves like,” 540, 564

Lime (calcium oxide), 88, 190,

786, 802, 983

standard enthalpy of

formation for, 190

Lime soda process, 807

Limestone. See Calcium

carbonate (limestone)

Limiting reactants (reagents),

106–11

theoretical yields, 109–10

Linear molecular geometry, 345,

346, 347, 349, 350, 353, 357,

360, 361, 1042



Line spectra, 219–20

Line spectrum, 219

Line structures, 1049

Linkage isomerism, 1014–15

Lipids, 1076–77

Lipitor, 342, 344

Liquid crystal displays (LCDs),

469

Liquid crystals, 467–70

properties of, 469

types of, 467–69

Liquid(s), 7, 455–57

cholesteric, 468, 469

intermolecular attractive

forces in, 444

ionic, 454–55

molecular comparison of

solids and, 444–46

nematic, 468

phase changes in, 457–61

properties of, 444

smectic, 468

surface tension of, 456

vapor pressure and, 461–64

viscosity of, 455–56

volatile, 462

Liter (L), 19

Lithium (Li), 8, 52

biochemical action of, 281

discovery of, 281

drugs, 281

electron configuration of,

238

formation of, 939

Lewis symbol for, 300

molecular orbitals for, 377,

496

oxidation in aqueous

solution, 144

properties of, 278t

7UP (soft drink) and, 281

Lithium cobalt oxide, 267

Lithium drugs, 281

Lithium fluoride (LiF)

melting and boiling points

of, 446

Lithium hydroxide, 106

Lithium ion, 63

as oxidizing agent, 874–76

Lithium-ion batteries, 267,

887–88

Lithium–silver chromate

batteries, 904

Litmus, 136, 683

Living systems. See also

Biochemistry

chirality in, 1069–70

iron in, 1011–12

metals and chelates in,

1009–12

radiation in, 938–44

LMCT transition, 1028, 1037

Lobes, in orbitals, 233–34



Lock-and-key model, 611

London, Fritz, 447–48

London dispersion forces,

447–48, 453

Lone pairs, 347, 696

Low-density polyethylene

(LDPE), 511, 512

Lowest unoccupied molecular

orbital (LUMO), 385–86

Lowry, Thomas, 673

Low-spin complex, 1025

Lubricants, 1050

Luminous intensity, 15

LUMO (lowest unoccupied

molecular orbital), 385–86

Lung cancer, 942

Lyman series, 251

Lysine, 1069

Lysozyme, 570, 611

Maalox, 139

Macromolecules, 512

Macroscopic realm, 5

Magic numbers, 916

Magnesite, 983

Magnesium (Mg), 8, 282, 436,

494, 497, 500

combustion of, 86–87

electron affinity of, 272

electron configuration of,

241

as essential nutrient, 282

Lewis symbol for, 300

oxidation of, 144, 145, 891,

893

properties of, 281

reactions of

with acid, 142

with iron(II) chloride,

145

in seawater, 792

successive values of

ionization energies for,

268

with titanium tetrachloride,

901

Magnesium fluoride, 500

Magnesium hydroxide, 136, 137

Magnesium ion, 63

Magnesium metal, combustion

of, 86–87

Magnesium sulfate, 534–35, 559

Magnet, permanent, 1001

Magnetic moment, 1001

Magnetic quantum number,

228, 235, 237–38

Magnetic resonance imaging

(MRI), 236

nuclear spin and, 236

prepolarized, 236

Magnetism, 1001–2, 1021

antiferromagnetism, 1001–2



diamagnetism, 383–84

ferrimagnetism, 1002

ferromagnetism, 1001

paramagnetism, 383–84,

1001, 1021

Magnitude, of equilibrium

constants, 637–38

Main-group (representative)

elements, 242

Malic acid, 670

Malignant tumor, 943

Malleability, 487, 495

Manganese, 54

oxidation in aqueous

solution, 144

Manganese dioxide, 967

Manganese(II) or manganous

ion (Mn2+), 63

Manganese(II) oxide, 315

Manganese silicide, 995

Manganese(VII) oxide, 315

Manganous or manganese(II)

ion (Mn2+), 63

Manhattan Project, 934

Manic-depressive illness, 281

Manometer, 403–4

Mansfield, Peter, 236

Many-electron atoms, 234–36

electron spin and, 235–36

general energy ordering of

orbitals for, 235

Pauli exclusion principle

and, 235–36

Marble, corrosion of, 785

Marconi, Guglielmo, 780

Marsden, Ernest, 46

Mass action, law of, 633

Mass defect, 930–31

Mass(es)

atomic, 48 (See also

Stoichiometry)

average atomic (See Atomic

weights)

calculating numbers of

molecules and atoms

from, 97–98

conservation of, 82

critical, 932

electron, 45

interconverting mole and,

95–96

interconverting number of

particles and, 96–98

molar, 93–95

calculating, 95

defined, 94

determining through

colligative properties,

557–58

effusion rate and, 423–24

gas density and, 412–14

neutralization reaction and,

152



Index

neutron, 48

in nuclear reaction, change

in, 929–30

proton, 48

SI unit of, 17

subcritical, 933

supercritical, 933

Mass numbers, 49–50, 911

Mass percentage, 544–45

Mass spectrometer, 52

Mass spectrum, 52

Materials, modern

liquid crystals, 467–70

types of, 467–69

for nanotechnology, 482,

514–18

carbon nanotubes,

516–17

metals on the nanoscale,

515–16

semiconductors on the

nanoscale, 514–15

for optics

liquid crystals, 467–70

semiconductor lightemitting diodes, 480,

507–8, 526

polymers and plastics, 480,

482, 507–14

making polymers, 509–11

recycling, 511

structure and physical

properties of

polymers, 511–14

semiconductors

semiconductor doping,

506–7

semiconductor lightemitting diodes, 480,

507–8, 526

Matter

classifications of, 6–11

compounds, 8–10

elements, 7–8

mixtures, 7, 8, 10–11

pure substances, 7

conservation of, 42, 82

defined, 4

properties of, 11–14

chemical, 11, 40

extensive, 11

intensive, 11

physical, 11, 40

physical and chemical

changes, 12–13

quantitative, 14

separation of mixtures,

13–14

states of, 7, 445

wave behavior of, 223–26

Matter waves, 224

Meals-ready-to-eat (MREs), 210

Mean free path, 562–63



diffusion and, 424–26

of metals, 515

Measurement, 14–32

dimensional analysis, 27–31

conversion factors in,

27–29

conversions involving

volume, 29–30

SI units of, 15–18

base units, 17

density, 20

derived, 19

length and mass, 15, 17

for speed, 19

temperature, 17–18

volume, 19

uncertainty in, 22–27

precision and accuracy,

22

significant figures, 22–27

uncertainty principle and,

225–26

Mechanical work, 175, 178

Mechanism, of addition

reactions, 1055–56

Medical imaging, 236, 250

Medicines

chelating agents in, 1009

chiral drugs in, 1067

radiotracers used in, 928

Mega prefix, 16

Meitner, Lise, 934

Melting curve, 465

Melting points, 464, 465

of alkali metal halides, 498

for benzene, toluene, and

phenol, 502

of covalent-network solids,

503

of diamond, 503

of intermetallic compounds,

493

intermolecular forces and,

446

of metals, 496, 498, 503

of molecular solids, 482, 502

normal, 465

of pewter, 491

of plumber’s solder, 491

of polymers, 482, 512

of solids, 482, 502, 503

of wood’s metal, 491

Mendeleev, Dmitri, 258–59, 291

Meniscus, 456

Menthol, 116

Merck Index, 32

Mercuric or mercury(II) ion, 63

Mercuric oxide dry-cell

batteries, 904

Mercury (Hg), 8, 55, 434

meniscus, 457

oxidation in aqueous

solution, 144



specific heat of, 182

surface tension of, 456

Mercury(II) or mercuric ion, 63

Mercury(I) or mercurous

ion, 63

Mercury(I) oxide, 664

Mesitylene, 100

Mesosphere, 776

Metabolism

of glucose, 95, 208

nitric oxide and, 385

peroxide ion by-product of,

970

of proteins, 195

Meta isomer, 391

Metal cations, acid-dissociation

constants for, 702–3

Metal chlorides, 762

Metal complexes, 1002–7

charges, coordination

numbers, and

geometries, 1006–7

metal-ligand bond, 1005–6

Werner’s theory of, 1003–5

Metal hydroxides, 134, 136

Metal ions

acidic solutions and, 703–4

complex ion formation and,

756–58

coordination numbers of,

1003

Lewis acids and bases and,

756–58, 998

in water, 702–3

Metallic bonds, 298, 300,

494–98

electron-sea model, 494–95

molecular-orbital model,

495–98

Metallic character, 273–74

Metallic elements, 55. See also

Metal(s)

Metallic hydrides, 960

Metallic radius, 292

Metallic solids, 482, 486–94. See

also Metal(s)

alloys, 491–94

close packing in, 488–91

structures of, 487–88

Metal–ligand bond, 1005–6,

1021

Metalloenzymes, 612

Metalloids, 55, 274, 277

periodic properties of, 277

Metallurgy

defined, 998

electrometallurgy of

aluminum, 895–96

Metal oxides, 274–76

basicity of, 275

ionic, 686

properties of, 276

reaction with acids, 275



I-19



Metal(s), 53, 55, 482, 486–94,

996–1039. See also Metallic

solids

active, 143, 283

activity series of, 143–45

alkali metals, 278–81

group trends for, 278–81

properties of, 278

reactions of, 280

alkaline earth metals, 281–82

group trends for, 281–82

properties of, 281

alloys, 491–94

common, 491, 494

defined, 491

of gold, 494

heterogeneous, 492–93

intermetallic compounds,

492–93

interstitial, 492

solution, 492

steels, 492

substitutional, 492–94

characteristic properties of,

273

close packing in, 488–91

conductivity of, 487, 495, 498

corrosion of, 891–93

iron, 891–93

deficiencies of, 1009

energy bands in, 497

f-block, 242, 245

group trends for, 278–82

alkali metals, 278–81

alkaline earth metals,

281–82

ionic compounds and, 60

ions of, 58

in living systems, 1009–12

on nanoscale, 515–16

noble, 143, 610

oxidation of, 891

by acids and salts, 142–43

periodic properties of, 278,

281, 497–98

physical properties of, 495,

498

qualitative analysis of,

762–64

reactions of

with halogens, 286

with hydrogen, 278

with nonmetals, 86–87,

276

with oxygen, 278, 279

standard reduction

potentials and

activity series of,

876–77

with water, 278

structures of, 487–88

transition (See Transition

metals)



I-20



Index



Metal-to-ligand charge-transfer

(MLCT) transition, 1029

meta- prefix, 1057

Metathesis reactions, 130–31

Meter (m), 15, 17

Methanal (formaldehyde),

369–70, 967, 1042, 1061

in car exhaust gases, 806

Methane, 56, 69, 70, 400, 440,

1042, 1045. See also Natural

gas

in atmosphere, 777

balanced chemical equation

for, 82–84

bond enthalpies in, 326–28

bonds in, 351, 362, 1045

combustion of, 187, 1044

as component of dry air near

sea level, 777

controlled oxidation of, 850

conversion to ethane, 339

critical temperature and

pressure in, 461

as greenhouse gas, 790

as greenhouse gases, 21

half-life of, 790

hydrogen production and, 958

in natural gas, 197

oxidation of, 790

phase diagram of, 466

production, 790

reactions of

with chlorine, 327–28

with iodine, 666

with oxygen, 83

representations of, 58

specific heat of, 182

standard enthalpy of

formation for, 190

structural formula for, 58

Methanoic acid. See Formic acid

(methanoic acid)

Methanol (methyl alcohol), 69,

70, 190, 208, 664, 850, 1059,

1060

combustion of, 1061

dissolution of, 126

hydrogen in manufacture

of, 959

as race car fuel, 208

reaction with water, 126

solubility of, 539

solution of, 126

standard enthalpy of

formation for, 190

Methanol fuel cells, 890

Methionine, 1069

Methyl acetate, 950

Methylamine, 697, 698, 721,

1038

Methylbenzene (toluene), 116,

548, 550, 569, 570, 800,

1056



Methyl bromide, 592, 783

Methyl chloride, 327–28, 783

Methyl ethanoate, 1059

Methyl ethyl ketone

(2-butanone), 1061

Methyl group(s), 1047, 1051

Methylhydrazine, 185–86, 974,

995

combustion of, 185–86

Methyl iodide, 478

Methyl isocyanate, 397

Methyl isonitrile, 599

first-order rearrangement

of, 591

isomerization of, 595, 618

transformation to

acetonitrile, 589, 595–96,

618

Methyl mercaptan, 264

Methyl orange, 684

3-Methyl-1-pentene, 1055

2-Methylpropane, 1046

2-Methyl-2-propanol, 1060

Methylpropene, 1051

Methyl propionate, 1064

Methyl red indicator, 684,

745–46

Methyl violet, 684

Metric system, 14

Mexico City, air pollution

in, 805

Meyer, Lothar, 258

Micro prefix, 16

Microscope, electron, 224, 251

Microstates, 823–24

Microwave radiation, 215, 255

Milk of Magnesia, 137, 139

Milliamp-hours (mAh), 906

Millikan, Robert, 45

Millikan’s oil-drop experiments,

45

Milliliter, 19

Millimeter of mercury (mm

Hg), 402

Milli prefix, 16

Millivoltmeter, 683

Miscible liquids, 538

Mixing

of gases, 532

natural tendency toward, 532

Mixture(s), 7, 8, 10–11

components of, 10

equilibrium, 630–31

of gases, 400

heterogeneous, 10, 11

homogeneous (See

Solution(s))

racemic, 1018, 1067

separation of, 13–14

MLCT transition, 1029

Moderator, 934, 935

Modern materials. See

Materials, modern



Molal boiling-point-elevation

constant, 553

Molal freezing-point-depression

constant, 553

Molality, 545–48

calculation of, 546–48

conversion of, 547–48

mass of solvent and, 546

temperature and, 546

Molar entropies, 829

Molar heat capacity, 182

Molarity (M), 146–47, 542,

545–46, 548

calculating, 146–47

calculation of, 548

conversion of, 547

defined, 546

interconverting moles,

volume, and, 148–49

temperature and, 546

volume of solution and, 546

Molar mass, 93–95

calculating, 95

defined, 94

determination of, 557–58

effusion rate and, 423–24

gas densities and, 412–14

Molar solubility, 749

Mole, 15, 92–98

converting to grams, 96

converting to number of

atoms, 93

defined, 92

interconverting masses and,

95–96

numbers of particles and,

96–98

interconverting molarity,

volume, and, 148–49

molar mass, 93–95

Molecular collisions, 593–94

Molecular compounds, 56

binary, 68–69

electrolytic behavior of, 135

in water, 126

Molecular diffusion, 421–26

Molecular effusion, 421–26

Molecular equations, 131

for redox reactions, 143

Molecular formulas, 56–57

of complex ion, 1006

from empirical formula,

100–101

Molecular geometry, 342–97

bent, 345, 346, 350, 355

covalent bonding and,

358–59

defined, 348

dispersion forces and, 448

hybrid orbitals and, 359–65

involving d orbitals, 363,

368

sp, 360–61



sp2 and sp3, 363–64

intermolecular attraction

and, 448

linear, 345–46, 347, 349, 350,

353, 357, 360, 361

of metal complexes, 1007

molecular orbitals (MO)

and, 373–76

bond order and, 375–76

in hydrogen molecule,

373–75

light absorption and, 385

from 2p atomic orbitals,

377–80

in second-row diatomic

molecules, 376–86

molecular (bond) polarity

and, 356–58

molecular shapes, 344–46

octahedral, 345–46, 348,

353, 357

seesaw, 353

square planar, 353, 354, 357

square pyramidal, 353, 354

tetrahedral, 344, 345–46,

347, 348, 349, 351, 355,

357

trigonal bipyramidal, 345,

352, 353, 357

trigonal planar, 345–46, 347,

348, 350, 357, 366

trigonal pyramidal, 345–46,

349, 350

T-shaped, 345, 353

valence-shell electron-pair

repulsion (VSEPR)

model of, 347–56

basis of, 347

for larger molecules,

355–56

for molecules with

expanded valence

shells, 352–54

nonbonding electrons

and multiple bonds,

351–52

valence-bond theory and,

358, 359, 364

Molecular hydrides, 960

Molecularity, 599, 600–601

rate laws for elementary

reactions and, 601–2

Molecular-orbital model for

metals, 495–98

Molecular orbitals (MO),

373–76

antibonding, 373–74

from atomic orbital wave

functions, 380

bonding, 373

energy and, 385–86

highest occupied (HOMO),

385–86



Index

lowest unoccupied (LUMO),

385–86

molecular geometry and

bond order and, 375–76

in hydrogen molecule,

373–75

light absorption and, 385

from 2p atomic orbitals,

377–80

in second-row diatomic

molecules, 376–86

phases in, 379–80

pi (p), 378–79

sigma (s), 374

Molecular orbital theory, 373

of coordination compounds,

1028

Molecular oxygen, 782

Molecular perspective, 4–5

Molecular (bond) polarity,

356–58

Molecular shapes, 344–46

Molecular solids, 482, 502

properties of, 502

Molecular speed, distributions

of, 419–20

Molecular weights, 71, 90

boiling point and, 449

Molecule(s), 4, 56–57

aromatic, 322

chemical formulas and, 56

of compound, 8

degrees of freedom of, 826

diatomic, 56

heteronuclear, 384–86

homonuclear, 376–86

electron density in, 307,

310–11

of element, 8

optically active, 1018

organic, 1042–43

picturing, 57

polar, 312, 447–48

properties of states and, 7

Mole fraction, 545–46

conversion of, 547–48

partial pressures and, 417–18

Molina, Mario, 782

Molybdenum, 250

Momentum, of an object, 224

Monatomic gases, 400

Monatomic ions, 140

Monochromatic light, 219

Monochromatic radiation, 219

Monochromatic wavelength, 219

Monoclinic lattice, 484

Monodentate ligands, 1007

Monomers, 507

mono- prefix, 68

Monoprotic acids, 133, 684

Monosaccharides, 1074–75

Monosodium glutamate (MSG),

116



Monounsaturated fatty acid,

1076

Montreal Protocol on

Substances That Deplete the

Ozone Layer, 783

Mortar, 983

Moseley, Henry, 259, 288

Mothballs, 336

Motif, 485

Motion, 166

Motion, molecular, 824–25

Motor oils, 455

Mount Pinatubo, eruption of,

782, 808

MREs (meals-ready-to-eat), 210

MRI (magnetic resonance

imaging), 236

MSG (monosodium glutamate),

116

Multiple bonds, 308–9

bond angles and, 351–52

bond enthalpies of, 326

electron domains for, 352

Lewis structure with,

316–17

molecular geometry and,

365–73

Multiple proportions, law of, 42

Multiplication, significant

figures in, 25

Multistep mechanisms, 600–601

rate-determining step for,

602–3

Multiwall carbon nanotubes,

516

Murad, Ferid, 976

Mylanta, 139

Myoglobin, 1009, 1072

Naming compounds. See

Nomenclature

Nanomaterials, 482, 514–18

carbon nanotubes, 516–17

metals, 515–16

semiconductors, 514–15

Nanoparticles, of platinum, 626

Nano prefix, 16

Naphthalene, 336, 341, 397,

1056

National Aeronautics and Space

Administration (NASA),

782

National Research Council, 21

Natural gas, 197, 264, 440,

790, 799, 808, 828. See also

Methane

combustion of, 808

conversion of, 853

extraction and transport of,

790

fuel value and composition

of, 197



n-decane, molecular formula

of, 526

Nebula, 939

Néel temperature, 1002

Negligible acidity, 676, 677

Nematic liquid crystalline

phase, 468

Neon (Ne), 52

in atmosphere, 777

atomic emission of, 219

electron configuration of,

238, 239

Lewis symbol for, 300

light emitted by, 219

line spectra of, 220

phase diagram for, 476

properties of, 286

Neopentane

(2,2-dimethylpropane), 448,

846, 1046

Neo- prefix, 1046

Neptunium, 920

Nernst equation, 880–82

Nernst,Walther, 880

Net ionic equations, 131

for oxidation-reduction

reactions, 143

writing, 132

Network solids, 540

Neurotransmitter, nitric oxide

as, 976

Neutralization reactions,

135–38

with gas formation, 138

using mass relations

in, 152

writing chemical equations

for, 136–37

Neutral solutions, 679, 704

Neutron diffraction, 251

Neutrons, 46, 47, 48, 910, 912,

913, 919

mass of, 48

Neutron-to-proton ratio,

914–16

Newton (N), 401

Newton, Isaac, 421

Niacin, 689, 692

Nickel (Ni)

alloyed with iron, 491

electronic band structure

for, 497

electroplating with, 893–94

reactions of

with hydrochloric acid,

535–36

with oxygen, 274

as reducing agent, 877

Nickel-acid reaction, 535–36

Nickel-cadmium (nicad)

battery, 859, 887

Nickel carbonyl, 439

Nickel(II), 1007



I-21



Nickel(II) chloride hexahydrate,

536

Nickel(II) or nickelous ion

(Ni2+), 63

Nickel-metal-hydride battery,

887

Nicotine, 116

“Nine-nines” silicon, 506

Nitrate anion, 129

Nitrate ion, 64, 65, 66, 321

delocalized bonding in, 371

resonance structures in, 321

Nitric acid, 133, 134, 135, 684–

85, 975–76

reactions of

with copper, 12

Nitric oxide(s), 667, 975

in atmosphere, 777

emissions of, 659–60

energy-level diagram for, 385

oxidization with nitrogen

dioxide, 787

reactions of

with bromine, 604–6

with chlorine, 667

with oxygen gas, 826

Nitride ion, 66

Nitrite ions, 581–82

Nitrobenzene, 1057

Nitrocellulose, 976

Nitrogen-13, 928

Nitrogen-14, 922

Nitrogen (N), 8, 308–9, 330,

340–41, 973–76

in atmosphere, 398, 400, 777

deep-sea diving and, 544

dissociation energy of,

779–80

distribution of molecular

speeds for, 419

domestic sewage and, 795

electron configuration of,

238

fixed, 973

hydrogen compounds of,

973–75

Lewis symbol for, 300

melting and boiling points

of, 446

molecular, 383

bonding in, 308–9

critical temperature and

pressure in, 461

Lewis structure of, 308

photodissociation of, 780

photoionization reactions

of, 780

properties of, 777

specific heat of, 182

mole relationships of, 94

oxidation states of, 973

oxides and oxyacids of,

975–76



I-22



Index



Nitrogen (N) (continued)

2p orbital filling in, 270

production and uses of,

973–75

properties of, 973

reduction of, 612

Nitrogenase, 612

Nitrogen cycle, 612

Nitrogen dioxide, 12, 400, 634–

35, 826, 975, 976

decomposition of, 590

dinitrogen tetroxidenitrogen dioxide

equilibrium, 634–35, 639

photodissociation of, 787

in smog, 787

Nitrogen fixation, 612

Nitrogen gas, in air bags, 415

Nitrogen oxides, 610, 782, 784,

786–87

high-temperature behavior

of, 621

Nitroglycerin, 199–200,

330, 976. See also

Trinitroglycerin

Nitro isomer, 1015

Nitrosyl bromide,

decomposition of, 667

Nitroto isomer, 1015

Nitrous acid, 976

properties of, 687

reaction with water, 675

Nitrous oxide, 400, 975

in atmosphere, 777

decomposition of, 604

as greenhouse gases, 21

NMR (nuclear magnetic

resonance), 236

Nobel, Alfred, 199, 330, 976

Noble-gas compounds, 961–62

Noble-gas core, 239

Noble (rare) gases (group 8A),

54, 960–62

boiling points of, 447

electron affinities for, 272

group trends for, 286–88

Noble metals, 143

n-Octylglucoside, 567

Nodal plane, 379, 380

Nodes, 227, 231

on waves, 226, 227

Nomenclature

of alkanes, 1046–48

of alkenes, 1051

of alkynes, 1053

chemical, 62

of coordination compounds,

1012–13

of inorganic compounds,

62–69

acids, 67–68

binary molecular

compounds, 68–69



ionic compounds, 62–66

Nomex, 526

Nonane, 1045

viscosity of, 455

nona- prefix, 68

Nonbonding atomic radius, 263

Nonbonding electrons, bond

angles and, 351–52

Nonbonding pair, 347, 351–52

Nonelectrolyte, 125

Nonionizing radiation, 938

Nonmetallic elements, 53, 55

Nonmetals, 53, 55, 952–95

boron, 987–88

electron configuration of,

238, 241

Lewis symbol for, 300

characteristic properties of,

273

electrons added to, 305

group 6A, 970–73 (See also

Oxygen (O))

general characteristics

of, 970

group trends for, 283–84

occurrences and

production of,

970–71

oxides, oxyacids, and

oxyanions of sulfur,

971–73

properties and uses of,

971

sulfides, 971

group 7A (halogens), group

trends for, 284–86

group 8A (noble gases),

960–62

compounds, 961–62

group trends for, 286–88

group 4A elements, 984–87

(See also Carbon (C);

Silicon (Si))

general characteristics

of, 984

group 5A elements, 977–80

(See also Nitrogen (N);

Phosphorus (P))

general characteristics

of, 977

hydrogen, group trends for,

282–83

ions of, 58

oxidation number of, 141

oxygen group (6A), group

trends for, 283–84

periodic properties of, 273,

952–56

reactions of, 955–56

with hydrogen, 282–83

with metals, 86–87

Nonpolar covalent bond, 309,

310



Nonpolar molecules, 356–57

Nonrenewable energy, 198

Nonspontaneous reactions, 842

Nonvolatile substance, 548

Normal boiling point, 463,

815–16

Normal melting point, 465

Novoselov, Konstantin, 517

n-Pentane, 448, 846

n-type semiconductor, 506–7

Nuclear age, 934

Nuclear binding energies,

930–31

Nuclear charge

atomic radii and, 264

effective, 259–62, 260

actual nuclear charge

and, 260

analogy for, 260

for period 2 and period 3

elements, 262

for valence electrons, 261

Nuclear chemistry, 908–51

biological effects of

radiation, 936, 938, 940

cancer treatment with,

943

dosage and, 940–41

radon, 942

therapeutic, 919, 928, 943

cancer treatment with, 919,

943

defined, 908

energy changes in nuclear

reactions, 929–31

nuclear binding energy,

930–31

fission, 932–37

reactors using, 934–36

waste from, 936–37

fusion, 931, 937–38

nuclear stability patterns

magic numbers and, 916

neutron-to-proton ratio,

914–16

radioactive series

(nuclear

disintegration series),

916

nuclear transmutations,

918–20

radioactive decay, 912–14

rates of, 920–25

types of, 912–14

radioactivity, 910–14

detection of, 926–27

Nuclear disintegration series,

916

Nuclear energy, 198

Nuclear equations, 911–12

balanced, 918

writing, 914, 918

Nuclear fission reactor, 934–36



Nuclear force, 49, 914

Nuclear magnetic resonance

(NMR), 236

Nuclear model of the atom,

46–47

Nuclear power plant design, 935

Nuclear reactions. See Nuclear

chemistry

Nuclear reactors, 934–36

Nuclear spin, magnetic

resonance imaging and, 236

Nuclear transmutations,

918–20

Nuclear waste, 936–37

Nucleic acids, 1077–81

Nucleons, 910

Nucleosome, 812

Nucleotides, 1079

Nucleus (atomic), 46

shell model of, 916

Nuclide, 911

Numbers

exact vs. inexact, 22

rounding off, 25

Nutrition label, 195, 208

Nylons, 509, 510–11

Oblique lattice, 483–84

Obsidian (volcanic glass), 483

Oceans, 530, 792

acidification of, 724, 753

temperature of, climate

change and, 790, 808

Octahedral complexes, electron

configurations in, 1024–25

Octahedral crystal field, 1022

Octahedral geometry, 345–46,

348, 353, 357, 1007

Octane, 69, 70, 206, 208,

455–56, 850, 1045

solution formation and, 535

viscosity of, 455–56

Octane numbers, 1050

Octane rating, 1050

octa- prefix, 68

Octet, 239, 240

Octet rule, 300–301

exceptions to, 322–25

Odors, 701, 721

esters and, 1064

Ogallala aquifer, 794. See also

High Plains Aquifer

OH group, acid-base equilibria

and, 707–8

Oil

combustion of, 784

crude (petroleum), 197, 1050

Oil-drop experiments,Millikan’s,

45

Olefins, 1044

Oleic acid, 1076

Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty

acids, 1077



Index

Open system, 169

Opsin, 372–73

Optical isomers (enantiomers),

1016–18, 1067

Optically active molecules, 1018

Orbital diagram, 237–39

electron configurations and,

237–39

Orbital overlap, 358–59

Orbitals

atomic (See Atomic orbitals)

hybrid, molecular geometry,

and, 359–65

molecular (See Molecular

orbitals (MO))

radial probability functions

for, 261

valence, 256

Ores, 998

Organic chemistry, 69

chirality in, 1067

compounds with carbonyl

group

aldehydes and ketones,

1061–62, 1087

amine and amides, 1066

carboxylic acids, 1062–65

esters, 1062–65

functional groups, 1043,

1058–66

alcohols, 1058–61

aldehydes and ketones,

1061–62

amine and amides, 1066

carboxylic acids and

esters, 1062–65

ethers, 1061

general characteristics of

organic molecules,

1042–43

hydrocarbons, 69–71,

1044–50

alkenes, 1051–53

alkynes, 1053–54

aromatic, 1044, 1056

branched-chain, 1045

saturated (alkanes),

70–71, 1044, 1045–49

straight-chain, 1045

Organic compounds, 62, 69–71

volatile, 800

Organic molecules, structures

of, 1042

Organic substances, stability of,

1043

Orientation factor in reaction

rates, 594

Ortho-dichlorobenzene, 339

Ortho isomer, 391

ortho-Phenanthroline, 1008,

1030

ortho- prefix, 1057

Orthorhombic lattice, 484



Osmosis, 554–57

biological examples of, 557

defined, 554

in living systems, 555–57

reverse, 795–96

through red blood cell walls,

556

Osmotic pressure, 548, 554–55,

557–58

calculating, 556

molar mass from, 557–58

Ostwald process, 975

-ous suffix, 63, 67

Outer-shell electrons, 239, 244

Overall reaction order, 584

Overlap, orbital, 358–59

Oxalate ion, 1008, 1029–30

Oxalic acid, 721

acid-dissociation constant

of, 694

Oxidation, 139–40

of alcohols, 1062

of calcium, 140, 144

of copper, 139, 144–45

of iron, 139, 144, 816

of metals, 142–43

of methane, 850

of sugar glucose, 842

Oxidation numbers (oxidation

states), 140–42, 275, 858–59

acidity and, 708

formal charge and, 319

of transition metals, 999–

1001

Oxidation potential, 907

Oxidation reactions, 89

Oxidation-reduction equations,

860–65

Oxidation-reduction (redox)

reactions, 138–45, 858–65

activity series and, 143–45

balancing, 860–65

in basic solution, 863–65

half-reaction method,

860–63

in batteries, 886

corrosion, 891–93

of iron, 891–93

defined, 138

determing the occurrence

of, 145

disproportionation, 905, 976

electron movement in, 860,

861, 862, 867–68

free energy and, 876–79

molecular and net ionic

equations for, 143

of nitrogen, 612

oxidation numbers

(oxidation states),

140–42

oxidation of metals by acids

and salts, 142–43



spontaneity of, 865, 876–77

in voltaic cells, 865–68

concentration cells, 882–86

emf in, 868–76

Oxide ion, 66, 275, 278, 284

Oxide(s), 968–69

acidic, 968

amphoteric, 758–59

basic, 968–69

of boron, 987

of carbon, 981–82

of nitrogen, 975–76

sulfur, 971–72

Oxidizing agent (oxidant), 859

Oxyacetylene, 1053

Oxyacids, 707–8, 966

of halogens, 966

of nitrogen, 975–76

sulfur, 971–72

Oxyanions, 64, 65, 966

common, 64

of halogens, 966

as oxidizing agent, 874

of sulfur, 971–72

Oxy compounds of phosphorus,

978–80

Oxygen (O), 8, 461, 961, 966–70

aerobic bacteria and, 795

allotropes of, 283, 289 (See

also Ozone)

in atmosphere, 400, 777

in blood, 737

dioxygen, 283

dissociation energy of, 779

electron configuration of,

256

elemental, 256

as excess reactant in

combustion reactions,

107

formation of, 939

in green chemistry, 800

Lewis symbol for, 300

methane reacting with, 83

molar mass of, 94

molecular, 4, 9, 56

bonding in, 383–84

combustion reactions

with, 955

critical temperature and

pressure in, 461

Lewis structure for, 383

paramagnetism of,

383–84

photodissociation of, 779,

781

photoionization of, 805

properties of, 777

molecular forms of, 283

oxidation number of, 141

oxides of, 968–69

as oxidizing agent, 874, 966,

967



I-23



paramagnetism of, 383–84

peroxides, 969–70

2p orbital filling in, 270

production of, 967

properties of, 9, 283, 967

reactions

with sulfur tetrafluoride,

396

reactions of

with alkali metals, 278–79

with cesium, 279

dissolution in water,

794–95

with hydrogen, 169, 171,

179

with metals, 274

with methane, 83

with nickel, 274

with nitric oxide, 826

with potassium, 279

with rubidium, 279

solubility of, 547

superoxides, 969–70

uses of, 967

Oxygen anions, 284

Oxygen atom, 9

Oxygen-demanding wastes, 795

Oxygen group. See Group 6A

elements (chalcogens)

Oxyhemoglobin, 1009, 1010,

1037

Oxymyoglobin, 1010

Ozone, 56, 191, 205, 283–84,

395, 967–68, 1063

in atmosphere, 777, 780–82,

968

chemical properties of, 284

concentration in air, 119

decomposition of, 666

molecular structure for, 320

odor of, 284

photodissociation of, 781

reaction with chlorine,

782–83

resonance structures in, 320

satellite monitoring of, 782

in smog, 787

in Southern Hemisphere,

September 24, 2006, 782

water disinfection with,

796–98

Ozone hole, 782, 783

“Ozone Hole Watch” website,

782

Ozone layer, 255, 781–82

depletion of, 782–83

halogen-containing

molecules and, 592

Ozone shield. See Ozone layer

Pacemaker cells, 885

Packing efficiency, 488, 490–91



I-24



Index



Packing efficiency (continued)

calculating, 490–91

defined, 490

Paired electrons, 237, 239

Palladium(II), 1004

Paper chromatography, 14

Paraffins, 1050

Para isomer, 391

Parallelepipeds, 484

Parallel spins, 238

Paramagnetism, 383–84, 1001,

1021

para- prefix, 1057

para-Xylene, 800

Partial charges, 310, 319

Partial pressures, 415–17

defined, 415

mole fractions and, 417–18

pressure-volume changes

and, 654

Particle accelerators, 918–19

Parts per billion (ppb), 544

Parts per million (ppm), 544,

777, 778

Pascal (Pa), 402, 829n

Pascal, Blaise, 402

Paschen series, 253

Pauli, Wolfgang, 235

Pauli exclusion principle, 235–36

Pauling, Linus, 309

p-block elements, electron

configurations of ions of,

305–6

Pearlite, 492, 493

“Pebble-bed” reactor design, 936

p elements, electron affinities

for, 272

Pentane, 1045, 1046

Pentanol, 539

penta- prefix, 68

Pentene, isomers of, 1052–53

Peptide bonds, 1070–71

Pepto-Bismol, 287

Percentage composition, 91

empirical formula from, 98

Percent ionization, 689, 692–94

concentration and, 693

using the quadratic equation

to calculate, 693–94

Percent yield, 109–10

Perchlorate, 966

Perchlorate ion, 64, 65, 66

Perchloric acid, 134, 708, 966

Period 2 diatomic molecules,

376–86

Periodic properties of elements,

256–97

atomic radii, 264–65

periodic trends in, 264–65

atoms and ions, sizes of,

262–67

effective nuclear charge

(Zeff ), 259–62, 260



electron affinities, 272–73

group trends for active

metals, 278–82

alkali metals (group 1A),

278–81

alkaline earth metals

(group 2A), 281–82

group trends for nonmetals,

282–88

halogens (group 7A),

284–86

hydrogen, 282–83

noble gases (group 8A),

286–88

oxygen group (group

6A), 283–84

ionic radii, 265–67

periodic trends in, 265–67

ionization energy, 268–72

electron configurations of

ions and, 271–72

periodic trends in first,

269–71

variation in successive,

268–69

metalloids, 277

metals, 274–76

nonmetals, 276–77

periodic table, development

of, 258–59

Periodic table, 8, 52–55

development of, 258–59

electron configurations and,

241–45

groups in, 53, 54

ionic charges and, 60

metallic elements or metals,

53, 55

metalloids, 55

nonmetallic elements or

nonmetals, 53, 55

periods of, 53–54

Periodic trends, 952–56

in atomic radii, 264–65

in first ionization energies,

269–71

in ionic radii, 265–67

Periods, 53–54

Permanent magnet, 1001

Permanganate half-reaction, 861

Permanganate ion, 66, 1028

Peroxidase, 970

Peroxide ion, 66, 279, 284, 289,

393, 969

Peroxides, 284, 969–70

per- prefix, 64, 65, 68

Perspective drawing, 57, 58

PES (photoelectron

spectroscopy), 296, 297

PET (polyethylene

terephthalate), 510, 511, 800

PET (positron emission

tomography), 928



Peta prefix, 16

Petroleum, 197, 1050

global population growth

and demand for, 198

pH, 680–84. See also Acidbase equilibria; Aqueous

equilibria

of buffer, 731–34

calculating, involving

common ion, 726–27

calculating acid-dissociation

constant from, 688–89

calculating from aciddissociation constant,

690–92

calculating from polyprotic

acid, 695–96

of common substances, 683

determining, using

concentration cell,

885–86

measuring, 683–84

salt effects on, 702–5

of seawater, 753

solubility and, 753–55

of strong acid, 685

of strong base, 685–86

titration curve, 738

using the quadratic equation

to calculate, 693–94

Phase changes in liquids,

457–61

critical temperature and

pressure, 460–61

energy changes

accompanying, 457–59

entropy change and, 819–20

heating curves, 459–60

Phase diagrams, 464–67, 551–52

illustrating boiling-point

elevation, 551

illustrating freezing-point

depression, 552

Phases

in atomic and molecular

orbitals, 379–80

condensed, 444

Phenol, 1060

properties of, 502

Phenol acid, 687

Phenolphthalein, 152, 153, 684,

745–46

Phenylacetic acid, 718

Phenylalanine, 1069, 1070

Phenylamine, 1066

Phenylmethanamide, 1066

Phenyl methanoic acid (benzoic

acid), 185, 186, 687, 709,

718, 1062

pH meter, 683, 883

Phosgene, 331, 351, 637

Phosphate ion, 65, 66

Lewis structures for, 325



Phosphates

insoluble, 763

as sequestering agents, 1009

Phosphine, 461

Phospholipids, 1077

Phosphoric acid, 965, 979

acid-dissociation constant

of, 694

sale of, 6

Phosphorous acid, 712–13, 979

Phosphorus–32, 928

Phosphorus (P), 8, 311, 324,

341, 494, 504, 506

allotropes of, 978

elemental, 341

halides of, 978

Lewis symbol for, 300

nonbonding electron pairs

in, 494

occurrence, isolation, and

properties of, 977–78

oxy compounds of, 978–80

properties of, 977–78

red, 978

silicon doping with, 506

white, 978

Phosphorus halides, 978

Phosphorus(III) oxide, 978

Phosphorus pentachloride, 664

Phosphorus pentafluoride, 324

Phosphorus trichloride, 978

Phosphorus trihalides, 396

Phosphorus(V) oxide, 978

Photochemical smog, 610,

786–87. See also Smog

Photocopiers, 971

Photodissociation, 778–83, 805

of ClO, 783

defined, 779

of NO2, 787

of oxygen, 779, 781

of ozone, 781

Photoelectric effect, 216,

217–18

Photoelectron spectroscopy

(PES), 296, 297

Photographic plates/film, 926

Photoionization, 778, 780, 805

Photoluminescence, 515, 521

Photon(s), 217–18

Photoreceptors, 372

Photosynthesis, 164, 175, 199,

210, 211, 1011

Photovoltaic cells, 164, 250

pH range, 734

pH titration curve, 738, 740

Physical changes, 12–13

Physical properties, 11, 40

Phytoplankton, 753

pi (p) bonds, 366–73, 954

in alkenes, 1052–53

in aromatic hydrocarbons,

1056–57



Index

in chemistry of vision,

372–73

delocalized, 370

in double bonds, 366

in ozone, 968

strength of, 366

in triple bonds, 366

Pico prefix, 16

pi (p) molecular orbitals,

378–79

in aromatic hydrocarbons,

1056–57

Pipelines, gas, 440

Pipette, 19

Pipevine swallowtail caterpillar,

202

Planck, Max, 216–17, 219, 220

Planck’s constant, 217

Plastic electronics, 513–14

Plastics, 508–9

elastomer, 508–9

electronics, 513–14

polycarbonate, 510

recycling, 511

thermoplastics, 508

thermosetting plastic, 508–9

types of, 508–9

Platinum, 626

oxidation in aqueous

solution, 144

Platinum(II), 1007

Plato, 42

Plumber’s solder, 491

Plumbous or lead(II) ion

(Pb2+), 63

Plum-pudding model of the

atom, 46

Plutonium–239, 932, 936–37

Plutonium (Pu), 241, 920

p-n diode, 507

pOH, 682–83

Polar covalent bond, 309, 310

Polarity

acidity for binary acids and,

706

bonding, 309–15

molecular (bond), 356–58

proton transfer reactions

and, 673–74

solubility and, 538–40

Polarizability, 447–48

Polar liquids, solubility of, 538

Polar molecules, 312, 356–57,

447–48

Pollutants

atmospheric, 784

CFCs, 592, 782, 790

environmental, 793

gases, 776, 784

hydrocarbons, 784, 787

nitrogen oxides, 782, 784,

786–87

sulfur dioxide, 784



unburned hydrocarbons as,

787

in urban atmosphere, 784

Pollution

air, 610

real-time analysis for

prevention of, 799

smog, 786–87

water, 979

Polonium–218, 942

Polonium (Po), 45, 283, 970

Polyacetylene, 517–18

Polyacrylonitrile, 526

Polyatomic ions, 59, 64, 315,

317, 323–24

Polycarbonate, 510

Polychloroprene, 526

Polychromatic radiation, 219

Polydentate ligands (chelating

agents), 1007–9, 1033

Polyesters, 509, 529

Polyethylene, 71, 508, 509, 510

annual production of, 509

high-density, 511, 512

low-density, 511, 512

properties of, 511–12

structure of, 511–12

Polyethylene terephthalate

(PET), 510, 511, 800

Polymeric solids, 508

Polymerization, 507

addition, 509

condensation, 509–10

Polymer(s), 480, 482, 507–14

addition, 510

biopolymers, 1068

co–, 510

commercially important, 510

condensation, 510

conducting, 517

cross-linking of, 512–13

crystallinity, 512

elastomeric, 508–9, 854

making, 509–11

structure and physical

properties of, 511–14

types of, 508–9

Polynucleotide, 1079

Polypeptides, 1070–71

Polyphosphate, 515

Polypropylene, 510, 511, 529

Polyprotic acids, titrations of,

746–47

Polysaccharides, 1075–76

Polystyrene, 510, 511

Polytetrafluoroethylene

(Teflon), 800, 964

Polyunsaturated fatty acids,

1076

Polyurethane, 510, 810

Poly(vinyl alcohol), 355

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 510,

511, 964



Population, global growth of,

198

p orbitals, 233

energy-level diagrams/

electron configurations,

381–82

periodic trends and, 952–56

phases in, 379–80

radial probability functions

of, 261

2p orbitals, molecular orbitals

from, 377–80

Porphine molecule, 1009

Porphyrins, 1009

Positron, 913

Positron emission, 913

Positron emission tomography

(PET), 928

Potassium–40, 943–44

Potassium (K), 8, 52, 212, 240

condensed electron

configuration of, 240

oxidation in aqueous

solution, 144

properties of, 278t

reaction with oxygen, 279

in seawater, 792

Potassium chlorate, 966, 967

Potassium dichromate, 1063

Potassium iodide, 128–29

Potassium ion, 63

Potassium nitrate, 129

Potassium superoxide, 279, 297,

969

Potential difference, 868

Potential energy, 166–68, 170

electrostatic, 166–68

free energy and, 832

Powdered limestone, 786

ppb (parts per billion), 544

ppm (parts per million), 544,

777, 778

Practice, importance of, 31

Praseodymium (Pr), 241

Precipitate, 128

Precipitation, 128–32

exchange (metathesis)

reactions, 130–31

of ionic compounds, 748

solubility guidelines for,

129–30

ionic equations, 131–32

of ions, 759–62

selective, 760–62

Precision, 22

Prefixes

binary compounds, 68

Greek, 68, 1013

metric system, 16

Prepolarized MRI, 236

Pressure, 175, 178, 401–4

atmospheric, 176, 178, 190,

205, 401–4



I-25



blood, 404

critical, 460–61

defined, 401

equilibria and, 652–54

equilibrium constants in

terms of, 635–36

gas, 401–4

intermolecular forces and,

445–46

Le Châtelier’s principles and,

651

osmotic, 548, 554–55, 557–58

partial, 415–17

mole fractions and,

417–18

real vs. ideal gas behavior

and, 426–28

solubility and, 541–43

spontaneous processes and,

815

standard, 829n

temperature changes on, 411

vapor, 461–64

Pressure-volume relationship,

404–5

Pressure-volume (P-V) work,

175–76, 178

Pressurized water reactor, 935

Priestley, Joseph, 966

Primary cells (batteries), 886

Primary coolant, 934, 935

Primary structure, of proteins,

1071, 1072

Primary valence, 1003

Primitive cubic lattice, 485, 487,

499

Primitive cubic unit cell, 488

Primitive lattice, 484

Principal quantum number (n),

221, 228, 229, 230, 234, 235,

238, 243–44

Probability, entropy and, 822

Probability density, 227, 379

Products, 82

calculating amounts of,

105–6

from limiting reactant,

108–9

change in concentration of,

651–52

enthalpy change and state

of, 179–80, 187–89, 190,

192–93

states of, 85

Proline, 1069

Propane, 69, 70, 400, 438, 461,

1044, 1045

carbon-carbon backbone of,

1042

combustion of, 89, 192–94,

835

critical temperature and

pressure of, 461



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