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Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Finally the study suggests a number of actions for those concerned bodies. Students should learn the
subject matter with trained teachers in the field. In other words the government should pay attention for
an effective teacher training program in music education. Text books should be revised again and
contents should be placed according to students’ educational need.
The results of the study indicated that teachers still experience a number of difficulties in teaching
music education, which is attributed to low efficiency in their performance. The study has shown that
the majority of teachers in the field encountered serious problems to teach the desired contents for the
respective grade levels. Most teachers are untrained in the field of music education and forced to teach
the subject matter without their interest. Due to this fact students were guided wrongly and they
remained to be fossilized for much misconception in music education.
Text books are poorly organized. For example, very minor concepts, abstract contents, and songs which
are below their age level were included in grade five and six, which further to be revised again. Songs
which are too immoral to teach for the young generation are still in the content. The songs found in the
text book are not supported with CDs, so that teachers could understand the songs’ melody without any
difficulty. Furthermore; text books are still the same in content for both the teacher and the students.
The Music Education Curriculum for primary grades was not well prepared and designed from the very
beginning. The manifestation of this problem has been clearly shown on the poor organization of the
The teacher training policy for Music education is one of the serious factors for the poor performance
of teachers not to impart the desired knowledge for the learners.
School administrators have been showing a tendency of undermining music education. Most school
administrators do not have the courage to put the curriculum into practice.
The idea of subject integration has not been properly implemented. Even though, music education can
play a significant role to teach other subjects and to make the contents more clear, teachers of other
subjects and music teachers themselves have not done promising works on this issue.
Like other subjects special classes are not still launched for music education sessions. Visually
impaired, hearing impaired and other students with physical disabilities have to participate and show
their talents in music education.
The following recommendations are forwarded based on the findings of the research.
• In most public schools the teaching of Music Education has been performed by non professional
teachers. So, concerned bodies, particularly the Ministry of Education should make more efforts in
order to produce more teachers in the field so that teachers in Music Education will be available in
the market, both in public and private schools.
• The teacher training policy and program in Music Education has to be revised again. The current
teachers’ training policy in Music Education, particularly the so called Aesthetic department became
inactive on the ground. Because it has been clearly observed that individual teachers were failed to
perform equally in all three subjects: Music, Art, and Physical Education. In most cases teachers
have been observed teaching only on subject among the three.
• Teachers should be trained Music Education separately in a Diploma program, instead of offering
all the components of Aesthetic Education, Music, Art and Health and Physical Education.
• Music Education has a great role to simplify abstract concepts in other subjects. Therefore, teachers
in primary schools should cooperatively work together with Music Education teachers and they
should implement the concept of integrated teaching.
• The Music Education Curriculum has to be designed again with the concerned bodies so that
learners should acquire better knowledge in their grade level.
• Since Music Education is a skill that both teachers and students acquire it through practice, musical
instruments should be offered for all primary schools across the nation. In the mean time, Music
Education teachers should develop the habit of using musical instruments in their music classes.
• It would be better to give refreshing courses for all music education teachers within a certain
interval of time in the academic year in order to increase teachers’ motivation in the area.
• There is a content disorganization, almost in all students’ text book, in primary grades. Text books
are full of irrelevant topics and contents for the learners. The text books should be rewritten and
reorganized again with professionals in the field of Music Education.
• So far there is no teacher’s guide text for the teachers. A teacher’s guide text should be prepared so
that teachers could refer the techniques and methods for each topic in the text book and to check the
correct answers for the given exercises in the students’ text book.
• Song notations in the text book have to be supported with ready-made CDs or cassettes. This helps
the teachers to practice melodies of each song in the text book. Because it has been observed that
most teachers in primary schools do not understand even the simplest song notations.
• To give a successful lesson in every subject, students should hand their own text book in the class.
Text books in Music Education have to be available like other academic subjects.
• It has been observed that schools administrators are negligent to implement Music Education
Curriculum and it seems that they do not believe in the importance of the subject matter. Therefore
administrative bodies in all primary schools need to have strong belief on the necessity and
implementation of Music Education.
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Appendix 1: Teachers’ Questionnaire
Addis Ababa University
College of Social Science
Department Center for African and Oriental Studies
Stream: African Intellectual History and Cultural Studies
Questionnaire to be filled by primary school of Aesthetic and physical education Teachers
The aim of this study is to find out the major factors affecting the teaching of music education with
reference to four primary schools in Addis Ababa.
The purpose of the questionnaire is to gather information in regard to implementation of Aesthetic
education and problems associated with music education in selected primary schools of Addis Ababa.
Since questionnaire is the primary source of information to do a research, you respondents are expected
to give consideration to your responses. Therefore, the answers and suggestions that you will suggest
are vital to access the study. Therefore, you are kindly asked to give genuine responses. All information
you give will be kept confidently.
Thank you for your cooperation.
Part I: Personal information.
Direction 1: for the following personal information please put the appropriate response.
1. Name of School _________________________________________ Sub city________________________________
Female_________________________________________ Male ____________________ ____________________
a) Diploma in aesthetics
b) Diploma in music
c) Degree in music
4. Areas of specialization___________________________________________
5. Total services in teaching profession
c) 6-10 years
d) 10-15 years
e) 16 and above years
Part II: General information
Direction 2: For the following statements, choose the appropriate response
Do you think music education is important in primary schools?
c) No idea
Do you think the music education syllabus and music education text
books have more significance to teach the subject?
a) Yes fully
b) Yes partially
c) No idea
Do you think the music education text books’ contents are all relevant?
a) Yes fully
b) Yes partially
Do you think the music education text books should be revised?
Do you have any knowledge of reading musical notes which are written in
primary school text books?
Do you have knowledge to compose melody for the written lyrics that are
written in the text books?
If you can’t compose the melody for the written lyrics, what mechanisms did
a) Skip the lyrics (topic)
b) give chance to students to try by themselves
c) if you have any method write in the space provided
Did you get support from the school administration to upgrade your field
of study in any ways?
Is it advisable to assign a single teacher to teach three subjects?
Do you think contents of the music education text books are difficult for
If your answer is yes for the above question, which contents and topic are
difficult for the grade level?
Have you evaluated the contents of music education text books? Are they
conducive for the respective grade levels? Or below the limit for the
If your answer is yes for the above question, which contents and topic are
Do you make an effort to use different techniques to enrich the contents
in the text book and to make contents more clear?
Do you think including folk songs are relevant for music education texts?