Tải bản đầy đủ - 90 (trang)
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Tải bản đầy đủ - 90trang

Finally the study suggests a number of actions for those concerned bodies. Students should learn the

subject matter with trained teachers in the field. In other words the government should pay attention for

an effective teacher training program in music education. Text books should be revised again and

contents should be placed according to students’ educational need.

5.2 Conclusion

The results of the study indicated that teachers still experience a number of difficulties in teaching

music education, which is attributed to low efficiency in their performance. The study has shown that

the majority of teachers in the field encountered serious problems to teach the desired contents for the

respective grade levels. Most teachers are untrained in the field of music education and forced to teach

the subject matter without their interest. Due to this fact students were guided wrongly and they

remained to be fossilized for much misconception in music education.

Text books are poorly organized. For example, very minor concepts, abstract contents, and songs which

are below their age level were included in grade five and six, which further to be revised again. Songs

which are too immoral to teach for the young generation are still in the content. The songs found in the

text book are not supported with CDs, so that teachers could understand the songs’ melody without any

difficulty. Furthermore; text books are still the same in content for both the teacher and the students.

The Music Education Curriculum for primary grades was not well prepared and designed from the very

beginning. The manifestation of this problem has been clearly shown on the poor organization of the

text books.

The teacher training policy for Music education is one of the serious factors for the poor performance

of teachers not to impart the desired knowledge for the learners.

School administrators have been showing a tendency of undermining music education. Most school

administrators do not have the courage to put the curriculum into practice.

The idea of subject integration has not been properly implemented. Even though, music education can

play a significant role to teach other subjects and to make the contents more clear, teachers of other

subjects and music teachers themselves have not done promising works on this issue.


Like other subjects special classes are not still launched for music education sessions. Visually

impaired, hearing impaired and other students with physical disabilities have to participate and show

their talents in music education.

5.3 Recommendations

The following recommendations are forwarded based on the findings of the research.

• In most public schools the teaching of Music Education has been performed by non professional

teachers. So, concerned bodies, particularly the Ministry of Education should make more efforts in

order to produce more teachers in the field so that teachers in Music Education will be available in

the market, both in public and private schools.

• The teacher training policy and program in Music Education has to be revised again. The current

teachers’ training policy in Music Education, particularly the so called Aesthetic department became

inactive on the ground. Because it has been clearly observed that individual teachers were failed to

perform equally in all three subjects: Music, Art, and Physical Education. In most cases teachers

have been observed teaching only on subject among the three.

• Teachers should be trained Music Education separately in a Diploma program, instead of offering

all the components of Aesthetic Education, Music, Art and Health and Physical Education.

• Music Education has a great role to simplify abstract concepts in other subjects. Therefore, teachers

in primary schools should cooperatively work together with Music Education teachers and they

should implement the concept of integrated teaching.

• The Music Education Curriculum has to be designed again with the concerned bodies so that

learners should acquire better knowledge in their grade level.


• Since Music Education is a skill that both teachers and students acquire it through practice, musical

instruments should be offered for all primary schools across the nation. In the mean time, Music

Education teachers should develop the habit of using musical instruments in their music classes.

• It would be better to give refreshing courses for all music education teachers within a certain

interval of time in the academic year in order to increase teachers’ motivation in the area.

• There is a content disorganization, almost in all students’ text book, in primary grades. Text books

are full of irrelevant topics and contents for the learners. The text books should be rewritten and

reorganized again with professionals in the field of Music Education.

• So far there is no teacher’s guide text for the teachers. A teacher’s guide text should be prepared so

that teachers could refer the techniques and methods for each topic in the text book and to check the

correct answers for the given exercises in the students’ text book.

• Song notations in the text book have to be supported with ready-made CDs or cassettes. This helps

the teachers to practice melodies of each song in the text book. Because it has been observed that

most teachers in primary schools do not understand even the simplest song notations.

• To give a successful lesson in every subject, students should hand their own text book in the class.

Text books in Music Education have to be available like other academic subjects.

• It has been observed that schools administrators are negligent to implement Music Education

Curriculum and it seems that they do not believe in the importance of the subject matter. Therefore

administrative bodies in all primary schools need to have strong belief on the necessity and

implementation of Music Education.



Adegbite ,A. (1999). The Place of Music in Ethiopian School Curriculum. Performer Ilorin J.

performing Arts, 1(2): 60-67.

All Write, D(2008). Observation in Music Classroom. London Longman.

Allyn and Bacon, (1969) Music for todays Boys and Girls. Atlantic Boston press. New York.

Ashenafi Kebede (19 89): Roots of Black Music. Printce –Hall, Inc. Engle Wood, New Jersey,USA

Bobbett, G.C(19 90). Musical Preparation. Rural Appalchian Band Directors’ Academic Preparation.

ERIC Clearinghouse.

Bosacki, S., & O’Neill, S. (2013). Early Adolescents’ Emotional Perceptions and engagement with

popular music activities in everyday life. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth (online May 25, 2013). 1-17, DOI:10.1080/02673843.2013.785438

Butzlaff, R. (2000). Can music be used to teach reading? The Journal of Aesthetic Education 34(3/4).


Candlin, G. and Breen, M.P. (19 83) Evaluating, Adopting and Innovating Teaching Materials. In C.

Yorio, K, Perkins and J.Schactor (Eds, TESOL (PP. 86-108)

Christopher Azzara,(19 91). Audiation, Improvisation, and Music Learning Theory. The Quarterly,2(12), 106-109.

Colwell, R. (ed.), (1992). Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning. New York:


Creswell, D. (2010) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches.

London: Longman.


Disouza, Nancy, (2003 ).’’ Music Learning. A Fun Experience.’’ The EXIMINER Magazine.

Dornyei, Zoltan (2007). Research Methods. Oxford University Press.

Ezra Abate ,(2002). Developing Primary School Music Curricular Materials in multicultural society.

Unpublished MA thesis

Fafunwa, AB. (1971). History of Higher Education in Ethiopia. New York, NY: Macmillan and Coy.

Joanne, Lipman, (2013). Multiple studies link music study to academic achievement." New York

Times - October 12, 2013.

Lee, Higgins, (2012). Community Music In Theory and in Practice: Oxford University Press.

Lindlof and Taylor. (2002) Qualitative Communication Research Methods, 2nd Edition. Thousands

Oasks: SAGE.

Martha Samuel. (2011) A Survey of Contemporary Practices and Problems of Music Education in the

First Cycle Primary Governmental Schools of Addis Ababa. Unpublished MA thesis

Morgan, D.L. (19 88) Focus Group as Qualitative Research. Sage, UK.

Morrison, Steven J. (1994 ). "Music students and academic growth." Music Educators Journal 81.2

(1994): 33. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 20 Feb. 2010.

O’Connor. M,(2003). Violen Method. Musik International. Blue Grass Journal.

Okafor, RC. (1988). Focus on Music Education in Ethiopia. Int. J. Music Edu. November, 12: 9-17.

Overy, K. (2000). Dyslexia, temporal processing and music: The potential of music as an early

learning aid for dyslexic children. Psychology of Music 28(2). 218-229.

Rauscher, F. & Zupan, M.A. (2000) ."Classroom Keyboard Instruction Improves Kindergarten

Children's Spatial-Temporal Performance: A Field Experiment". Early Childhood Research

Quarterly, 15 (2), 215-228.


Rauscher, F. and Zupan. M.A (2000). ‘’Classroom Keyboard Instruction Improvises kindergarten

Children’s spatial/Temporal Performance: A Field Experiment ‘’ Early Child hood Research

quarterly, 15(2), 215-228.

Register, D., Darrow, A.A, Swedberd, O., & Standley, J. (2007). The use of music to enhance reading

skills of second grade students and students with reading disabilities. Journal of Music

Therapy, 44(1), 23Riley Martha, Chrisman (19 90) PP 79-89, ‘’Portrait of a Nineteenth- Century school Music

Program.’’ Journal of Research in Music Education, Vol. 38, No. 2. MENC, The National

Association of Music Education.

Schellenberg, E.G. (2004) Music lessons enhance IQ. Psychological Science 15(8), 511-514.

Singh, K. (2007) Qualitative Social Research Methods, SAGE Publications, New Delhi.

Smith, S. M. (1985). Environmental context and recognition memory reconsidered. Bulletin of the

Psychonomic Society, 23, 173±176.

Wallace, W. (1999) ."Memory for music: Effect of melody on recall of text". Journal of Experimental

Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20 (6), 1471-1485.

Williams, D. (2008) Developing Criteria for Text Book Evaluation. Oxford University Press.

Yudkin, J. (2008). Understanding Music. UpperSaddle River, NJ: Person/Prentice Hall.

Zenebe Bekele (19 87): Music in the horn: A preliminary Analytical Approach to the Study of

Ethiopian Music: Forfattaes Bookmaskin, Sweeden.



Appendix 1: Teachers’ Questionnaire

Addis Ababa University

College of Social Science

Department Center for African and Oriental Studies

Stream: African Intellectual History and Cultural Studies

Questionnaire to be filled by primary school of Aesthetic and physical education Teachers

Dear participants,

The aim of this study is to find out the major factors affecting the teaching of music education with

reference to four primary schools in Addis Ababa.

The purpose of the questionnaire is to gather information in regard to implementation of Aesthetic

education and problems associated with music education in selected primary schools of Addis Ababa.

Since questionnaire is the primary source of information to do a research, you respondents are expected

to give consideration to your responses. Therefore, the answers and suggestions that you will suggest

are vital to access the study. Therefore, you are kindly asked to give genuine responses. All information

you give will be kept confidently.

Thank you for your cooperation.


Part I: Personal information.

Direction 1: for the following personal information please put the appropriate response.

1. Name of School _________________________________________ Sub city________________________________

2. Sex

Female_________________________________________ Male ____________________ ____________________

3. Qualification

a) Diploma in aesthetics

b) Diploma in music

c) Degree in music

d) Others

4. Areas of specialization___________________________________________

5. Total services in teaching profession

a) Fresh

b) 1-5


c) 6-10 years

d) 10-15 years

e) 16 and above years


Part II: General information

Direction 2: For the following statements, choose the appropriate response


Question item




Do you think music education is important in primary schools?

a) Yes

b) No

c) No idea



Do you think the music education syllabus and music education text

books have more significance to teach the subject?

a) Yes fully

b) Yes partially

c) No idea



Do you think the music education text books’ contents are all relevant?

a) Yes fully

b) Yes partially


No idea



Do you think the music education text books should be revised?






No idea






Do you have any knowledge of reading musical notes which are written in

primary school text books?




Enough knowledge

Little knowledge

No Knowledge



Do you have knowledge to compose melody for the written lyrics that are

written in the text books?







If you can’t compose the melody for the written lyrics, what mechanisms did

you use?

a) Skip the lyrics (topic)

b) give chance to students to try by themselves

c) if you have any method write in the space provided



Did you get support from the school administration to upgrade your field

of study in any ways?







Is it advisable to assign a single teacher to teach three subjects?



b) No




Do you think contents of the music education text books are difficult for

the learners?







If your answer is yes for the above question, which contents and topic are

difficult for the grade level?


Have you evaluated the contents of music education text books? Are they

conducive for the respective grade levels? Or below the limit for the

students’ age?







If your answer is yes for the above question, which contents and topic are




Do you make an effort to use different techniques to enrich the contents

in the text book and to make contents more clear?







Do you think including folk songs are relevant for music education texts?







Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay(90 tr)