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9 Major Findings from Students’ Focus Group Discussion

9 Major Findings from Students’ Focus Group Discussion

Tải bản đầy đủ - 90trang

over text books and the overall music curriculum should be revised so that it would be appropriate for

all grade levels.

Ministry of Education and Regional educational sectors have to strive more, in giving better awareness

about the significance of music education for society, in particular for school administrators.

Professionals in the field have to be invited in order to have a better curriculum, syllabus and text book

organization.

Data from Text Books’ Content Evaluation (Grade 1-4)

In this sub topic a review of music education contents are observed in relation to their relevance to the

learners.



The text book is evaluated based on the following criteria

 The Validity of contents

 Contents of the text book

 Significance of contents for the learners

 The scope and depth of contents.

 The applicability of the contents in the text book

 Clarity of the content

 Appropriateness of the text book for the learners

 Integration and continuity of the text book

 Effectiveness of the text book

 Efficiency of the material



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Table: 4.9 Grade one text book



Authors name



No of

No of

No of

text book title Years of No of No of No of

publication units pages educationaleducationalfolk songs directly

songs with songs

copied

notation with out

from

notation

abroad



1.Abebe kasaye



Esthetics



2.Abera mehari



teaching



3.Deberie abdisa



book



1998 E.C



3



120



1



8



4



3



4.Asefa bekele

5.Legesse waqe

6.Seifu bekele

7.Amarech

fekyibelu

Source: Compiled by the researcher, Addis Ababa, 2017



Strength

The strength of the text book is well organized in various contents particularly in its lyric. Moreover,

the text is appropriate to the learners’ mental and age level. Lyrics such as:

 Family members, Domestic animals, parts of our body, HIV, sense organs, road and traffic security,

personal hygiene are some of the most interesting lyrics included in the text book.

Weakness

The book has eight educational lyrics but it lacks melody or musical notations. Teachers are expected

to compose simple melody, which are appropriate for the students. But different teachers may compose



44



different melody. This creates non uniformity from one school to the other. Furthermore, if the teacher

is unable to create melody, he/she may skip the songs.

The book has only a single song a lyrics with melody (musical notations) but the length of words in the

lyrics are not seat in a uniform format. In case if the teachers are not trained how to read musical

notation and if musical instruments are not available, it is difficult to implement the curriculum,

teaching songs with musical notation for the students.

The lyrics of the following songs namely ‘AKUKULU”, on page 31 ‘ABEBAYEHUSH”, page 32

‘EMBUSHE GELLA’, page33 ‘CHEREKA DIMBLEBOKA’, page 97 are traditional play songs which

the students will have a chance to sing even before kindergarten level. The contents of the above listed

four songs did not have any educational value. The songs might not have educational contents, but the

students develop social interaction, entertainments, mental and physical relaxation. The lyrics of the

songs might be developed through replacing other relevant educational contents.

On Page 98, the songs entitled ‘Head shoulder, knees and toes’ and ‘Brother John’ were ‘copied’

directly from western song. Have been copied directly from abroad but the second one was rearranged

or adopted demos tic languages, which makes to lose our creativity in the target professional stream.



Table: 4.10 Grade Two Text Book



Authors name



text book

title



1.Abebe kasaye



Aesthetics



2.Abera mehari teaching

3.Deberie abdisa book



Years of No of No of No of

publication units pages educational

songs with

notation



1998 E.C



3



137



4.Asefa bekele

5.Legesse waqe

6.Seifu bekele

7.Amarech

fekyibelu



45



5



No of

No of

educational folk

songs

songs

with out

notation



10



5



No of

directly

copied

from

abroad



No of

marriage

songs



1



2



Source: Compiled by the researcher, Addis Ababa, 2017



Strength

Like the previous grade the lyrics are better prepared. It has also continuity of topic, which are further

developed and compatible to the learners’ age level. The following topics can be considered as suitable

for the learners.

 Family members, Domestic animals, parts of our body, HIV, road and traffic security, personal

hygiene, cultural heritages, Environmental and surrounding sanitation. The above topic titles

written in the text book in Amharic language.

Weakness

The book has ten educational lyrics but it lacks melody or musical notations. Teachers are expected to

compose simple melodies, which are appropriate for the students. But different teachers compose

different melodies which create non uniformity from one school to the other. Furthermore, if the

teacher is unable to create melody he/she might skip the songs.

The book has five songs lyrics with melody (musical notations) but the length of words in the lyrics

are not seat in a uniform format. In case if the teachers are not trained how to read musical notation and

if musical instruments are not available, it is difficult to implement the curriculum, teaching songs with

musical notation for the students

The lyrics of the following songs entitled ‘ASIYO BELEMA”, on page 37 and ‘CHEREKA

DIMBLEBOKA’, on page 107 are traditional play songs, which the students could have a chance to

know them even before kindergarten level. But, the students develop social interaction, entertainments,

mental and physical relaxation. Another type of songs which are unnecessary for their educational

purpose includes common marriage songs such as “MUSHERAYE” on page 8 and “NEY BERA NEY

BERA” On page 40. The lyrics of the above listed songs do not have any educational value, i.e. there is

nothing the students would learn from them. They need to be left out from the text book. They might be

considered immoral to the current society’s culture. Even there are songs which are repeated with the

same content from grade one.

On Page 103, the music entitled ‘Brother John’ is directly copied from abroad, which decreases

creativity of the professionals in the field.



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Table: 4.11 Grade Three Text Book



Authors name



text book

title



1.Asefa Bekele



Aesthetics



2.Abera Mehari



teaching



3.Deberie Abdisa



book



Years of No of No of No of

publication units pages educational

songs with

notation



1998 E.C



3



110



2



No of

No of

educational folk

songs

songs

with out

notation



8



4



No of

directly

copied

from

abroad



No of

marriage

songs



1



4.Legesse Waqe

5.Elias Asegahegn

6.Taye Melis

7.Alemayehu

Tadesse



Source: Compiled by the researcher, Addis Ababa, 2017



Strength

Like the previous grade the lyrics are better prepared. It has also continuity of topic, which are further

developed and compatible to the learners’ age level. The following topics can be considered as suitable

for the learners

 Family members, Domestic animals, parts of our body, HIV, road and traffic security, personal

hygiene, cultural heritages, Environmental, surrounding sanitation and water The above topic titles

written in the text book in Amharic language.

Weakness

The book has eight educational lyrics but it lacks melody or musical notations. Teachers are expected

to compose simple melodies, which are appropriate for the students. But different teachers compose

different melodies which create non uniformity from one school to the other. Furthermore, if the

teacher is unable to create melody he/she might skip the songs.



47



2



The book has two songs lyrics with melody (musical notations) but the length of words in the lyrics are

not seat in a uniform format. In case if the teachers are not trained how to read musical notation and if

musical instruments are not available, it is difficult to implement the curriculum, teaching songs with

musical notation for the students.

The lyrics of the following songs entitled ‘HOYA HOYE”, on page 29 and ‘ABEBA A YEHOSH’, on

page 29 are traditional play songs, which students could have a chance to know even before

kindergarten level. But, the students might develop social interaction; create entertainments, mental and

physical relaxation. There are also other songs which are totally irrelevant for the students’ academic

performance such as: “HAYLOGA SHEBO AND ANASGEBAM SERGENA” on page 25. The lyrics of

the above listed songs do not have any educational value, i.e. there is nothing that students will learn

from the above songs. They need to be left out from the text since they don’t have any educational

relevance.

There is also a song which is repeated from grade one with the same content and no change in the

melody like “ABEBAYEHOSH”. Page 103, the song entitled ‘Brother John’ is directly copied from

abroad which decreases the proficiency of text book writers. Moreover, the song is too elementary for

the learners’ age level, which is better given at lower grades.

Table: 4.12 Grade Four Text Book



Authors name



text book



title



1.Asefa Bekele



Aesthetics



2.Abera Mehari



teaching



3.D eberie Abdisa



book



Years of No of No of No of

No of

No of

publication units pages educationaleducationalfolk

songs with songs

songs

notation with out

notation

1998 E.C



3



120



1



5



No of

directly

copied

from

abroad



3 any



No of

marriage

songs



two

and



5.Legesse Waqe



1 love



6.Elias Asegahegn



songs



6.Taye Melis

7.Alemayehu

Tadesse



48



Source: Compiled by the researcher, Addis Ababa, 2017



Strength

Like the previous grade the lyrics are better prepared. It has also continuity of topics, which are further

developed and compatible to the learners’ age level. The following topics can be considered as suitable

for the learners.

 Family members, Domestic animals, parts of our body, HIV, road and traffic security, personal

hygiene, cultural heritages, Environmental and surrounding sanitation, harmful traditional practices.

The above topic titles written in the text book in Amharic language.

Weakness

The book has three songs lyrics with melody (musical notations) but the length of words in the lyrics

are not seat in a uniform format. In case if the teachers are not trained how to read musical notation and

if musical instruments are not available, it is difficult to implement the curriculum, teaching songs with

musical notation for the students.

The lyrics of the following songs on page 18 entitled ‘HOYA HOYE”, and on page 19 ‘ABEBA

AYEHOSH’, and on page 17 “ASIYO BELEMA” are traditional play songs, which the students could

have a chance to know even before kindergarten level. But, the students develop social interaction,

entertainments, mental and physical relaxation. There are also other songs, which are totally irrelevant

for the learners such as: “YEWEYN ABEBAYE” on page 10, “HAYLOGA SHEBO AND ANASGEBAM

SERGENA” on page 116. Those songs are totally irrelevant for the learners academic development,

which are better left out from the text.

There is also a song which is repeated from grade one with the same content and no change in melody

such as: “ABEBAYEHOSH” and “ASIYO BELEMA” and also ‘’HOYA HOYE’’ from grade two.



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4. 11 Major Findings of the Text Book Evaluation (Grade 1-4)

The text books have continuity in their contents. Content developments is done in all grade levels,

particularly in lyrics. For example the information given in HIV AIDS, traffic laws, personal hygiene,

Environmental sanitation, cultural heritage, harmful traditional practices, and living with family

members are some of the topics which help the learners to acquire sufficient knowledge about different

issues.

On the other hand the text books have their own draw backs, contents are not integrated, and various

subject matters should be included in the contents. It only focuses on certain subjects like

environmental science, and Civic and Ethical Education. But the text books ignore other disciplines

like Mathematics, English and Amharic. Other concept such as patriotism feeling and personality

building issues are neglected.

To make the Aesthetics books appropriate in terms of contents, the writers of the books should consider

relevant issue like, integrating different subjects, and including other variables which helps them to

develop their personal skills. The book has to be revised in collaboration with music education

professionals and other experts from educational sectors. The educational songs compositions should

be related with Ethiopian tunes, which are simply rehearsed by the learners. CDs and cassettes should

be included with the book together, so that teachers can easily practice the songs. This would also help

those teachers who do not have enough knowledge to read and use the notation system and how to

compose the melody. Even teachers who do not have the access to get musical instruments would able

to use the CDs for the teaching of music education.

Moreover instruments like: cassettes , recorder, Tsinatsil, drum, rhythm stick, and tambourine should

be available at school level. The text books strongly suggest those musical instruments to be used in the

teaching of music.

There are also other issues which need to be improved in the text books’ organization. Folk songs’ lyric

should include appropriate educational contents which are relevant for the learners. Some irrelevant

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songs like: marriage and love songs should be left out from the text. Because such songs do not go with

the learners’ age level. Even such issues do not have moral values for the generation. The play songs

which included in the text are too much elementary; rather the learners could perform at their home.

There is also repetition of songs in all text books. We should include some other new songs in the text

books so that the learners shouldn’t be bored with the lessons. The lyrics are not yet written according

to the learners’ age level.

Further, the book doesn’t seem like a music education text book. It is full of poems which are rather

recommended for teaching advanced literature courses. Because of the inappropriateness of the length

of words, it is very hard to compose even a simple melody for the students to memorize. And also the

musical notations are very few and most of them are written for the folksongs which are not relevant

for the learners’ academic activity.

 Some of the lyrics words are not equal in length to compose melody for them easily. Moreover the

songs and lyrics should be interesting, motivating and should also create satisfaction among the

learners so that the teaching of music should remain interesting.



Data from Text Books’ Content Evaluation (Grade 5 and 6)

In this sub topic a review of music education contents are observed in relation to their relevance to the

learners.



The text book is evaluated based on the following criteria

 The Validity of contents

 Contents of the text book

 Significance of contents for the learners

 The scope and depth of contents.

 The applicability of the contents in the text book

 Clarity of the content

 Appropriateness of the text book for the learners



51



Table: 4.13 Grade Five Text Book



Authors name



text book

title



1.Deberie abdisa



Music



2.Girma Gemechu teaching

3.Solomon Gelaw book



No of

Years of No of No of No of

No of

publication units pages educationaleducationaldirectly

songs with songs

copied

notation with out

from

notation abroad

1997 E.C



7



69



6



2



3



Source: Compiled by the researcher, Addis Ababa, 2017



Strength

 In terms of academic content the text book is organized better than the first cycle text books (grade

1-4) the contents are suitable for the learners’ age and maturity level. I will write different topics

tittles are as follows. The text book contains better contents which make the students to have better

awareness about music. Some of the contents are: the what of music and music education,

significance of music education, elements of sound and their meanings, the significance of music in

the society, theory of music about note and rest signs; beat, how to read and write musical notes;

musical sounds on the staff, clefs, time signature, bar, bar line, double bar line, Ethiopian music

history, St.Yared’s life history and his works; cultural music and traditional Ethiopian musical

instruments.

Weakness

The book has six songs lyrics with melody (musical notations) but the length of words in the lyrics are

not seat in a uniform format. In case if the teachers are not trained how to read musical notation and if

musical instruments are not available, it is difficult to implement the curriculum, teaching songs with

musical notation for the students.

52



There is also a song which is repeated from grade two with the same content and no change in the

melody. One of the repeated song is “ARE YOU SLEEPING?” And other songs are copied from

abroad without any change. Songs entitled “ARE YOU SLEEPING?”, “ROW YOUR BOAT” And

“NEWEYE LENELEYAY”, on page 15, 44,and 69 are also copied from abroad. The first two songs are

not appropriate for their grade level; these songs are better to be included in grade one and two as they

are appropriate at lower grade level. Besides, the songs are copied from abroad and not contextualized

in our countries conditions. There are contents that are difficult for their grade level included- what is

scale? How to build major scale? And How to build Ttizita and Batti kigits.

Table: 4.14. Grade Six Text Book



Authors name



text book

title



1.Deberie abdisa



music



2.Girma Gemechu

3.Solomon Gelaw



teaching



Years of No of No of No of

publication units pages educational

songs with

notation



1997 E.C



7



69



8



No of

educational

songs

with out

notation



4



No of

directly

copied

from

abroad



4



book



Source: Compiled by the researcher, Addis Ababa, 2017



Strength

In terms of academic content the text book is organized better than the first cycle text books (grade 1-4)

the contents are suitable for the learners’ age and maturity level. The text book contains better contents

which make the students to have better awareness about music. Some of the contents are What is

music, characteristics of sound, the significance of music in other subject, how to read and write

musical notes; musical sounds on the staff, time signature, tempo dynamics, Ethiopian music history,

professor Ashenafi Kebede’s life history and his works ; cultural music, traditional Ethiopian music

instruments and modern music instruments.



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