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6 Path Contours—FK Free Contour Programming

6 Path Contours—FK Free Contour Programming

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6.6 Path Contours—FK Free Contour Programming



The following prerequisites for FK programming must

be observed

The FK free contour programming feature can only be

used for programming contour elements that lie in the

working plane. The working plane is defined in the first BLK

FORM block of the part program.

You must enter all available data for every contour

element. Even the data that does not change must be

entered in every block—otherwise it will not be

recognized.

Q parameters are permissible in all FK elements, except in

elements with relative references (e.g. RX or RAN), or in

elements that are referenced to other NC blocks.

If both FK blocks and conventional blocks are entered in a

program, the FK contour must be fully defined before you

can return to conventional programming.

The TNC needs a fixed point from which it can calculate

the contour elements. Use the gray path function keys to

program a position that contains both coordinates of the

working plane immediately before programming the FK

contour. Do not enter any Q parameters in this block.

If the first block of an FK contour is an FCT or FLT block, you

must program at least two NC blocks with the gray path

function keys to fully define the direction of contour

approach.

Do not program an FK contour immediately after an LBL

command.



Creating FK programs for TNC 4xx:

For a TNC 4xx to be able to load FK programs created on

an iTNC 530, the individual FK elements within a block

must be in the same sequence as displayed in the soft-key

row.



HEIDENHAIN iTNC 530



249



6.6 Path Contours—FK Free Contour Programming



Graphics during FK programming

If you wish to use graphic support during FK

programming, select the PROGRAM + GRAPHICS screen

layout (see “Programming and Editing” on page 79).

Incomplete coordinate data often is not sufficient to fully define a

workpiece contour. In this case, the TNC indicates the possible

solutions in the FK graphic. You can then select the contour that

matches the drawing. The FK graphic displays the elements of the

workpiece contour in different colors:

Blue

Green

Red



The contour element is fully defined

The entered data describe a limited number of possible

solutions: select the correct one

The entered data are not sufficient to determine the

contour element: enter further data



If the entered data permit a limited number of possible solutions and

the contour element is displayed in green, select the correct contour

element as follows:

U



Press the SHOW SOLUTION soft key repeatedly until

the correct contour element is displayed. Use the

zoom function (2nd soft-key row) if you cannot

distinguish possible solutions in the standard setting



U



The contour element shown corresponds to the

drawing: With the SELECT SOLUTION soft key the

TNC inserts the desired solution with the NC block

FSELECTn, where n designates the internal solution

number. You should not change the solution number

n by direct editing, but by restarting the programming

graphics and pressing the SHOW SOLUTION soft key



If you do not yet wish to select a green contour element, press the

END SELECT soft key to continue the FK dialog.

Select the green contour elements as soon as possible

with the SELECT SOLUTION soft key. This way you can

reduce the ambiguity of subsequent elements.

The machine tool builder may use other colors for the FK

graphics.

NC blocks from a program that you called with PGM CALL

are displayed in another color.

Show block number in graphic window

To show a block number in the graphic window:

U



250



Set the SHOW OMIT BLOCK NR. soft key to SHOW

(soft-key row 3)



Programming: Programming Contours



6.6 Path Contours—FK Free Contour Programming



Converting FK programs into HEIDENHAIN

conversational format

The TNC features two possibilities for converting FK programs to

plain-language programs:

„ Convert the program so that the program structure is maintained

(program-section repeats and subprogram calls). Cannot be applied

if you have used Q-parameter functions in the FK sequence.

„ Convert the program so that program-section repeats, subprogram

calls and Q-parameter calculations are linearized. For linearization,

instead of the program-section repeats and subprogram calls, the

TNC writes the NC blocks processed internally into the generated

program or calculates values assigned via Q-parameter calculations

within an FK sequence.

U



Select the program you want to convert



U



Press the Special Functions key



U



Press the Programming Aids soft key.



U



Select the soft-key row with functions for converting

programs



U



Convert the FK blocks of the selected program. The

TNC converts all FK blocks into straight-line blocks

(L) and circular-arc blocks (CC, C), and the program

structure is maintained, or



U



Convert the FK blocks of the selected program. The

TNC converts all FK blocks into straight-line blocks

(L) and circular-arc blocks (CC, C), and the TNC

linearizes the program



The name of the file created by the TNC consists of the

old file name plus the extension _nc. Example:

„ File name of the FK program: LEVER.H

„ File name of the conversational dialog program

converted by the TNC: LEVEL_nc.h

The resolution of the created conversational program is

0.1 µm.

After the converted NC blocks, the converted program

includes the comment SNR and a number. The number

indicates the block number of the FK program from which

the respective conversational block was calculated.



Initiating the FK dialog

If you press the gray FK button, the TNC displays the soft keys you can

use to initiate an FK dialog—see the following table. Press the FK

button a second time to deselect the soft keys.



HEIDENHAIN iTNC 530



251



6.6 Path Contours—FK Free Contour Programming



If you initiate the FK dialog with one of these soft keys, the TNC shows

additional soft-key rows that you can use for entering known

coordinates, directional data and data regarding the course of the

contour.

FK element



Soft key



Straight line with tangential connection

Straight line without tangential connection

Circular arc with tangential connection

Circular arc without tangential connection

Pole for FK programming



252



Programming: Programming Contours



6.6 Path Contours—FK Free Contour Programming



Pole for FK programming

U



To display the soft keys for free contour programming,

press the FK key



U



To initiate the dialog for defining the pole, press the

FPOL soft key. The TNC then displays the axis soft

keys of the active working plane



U



Enter the pole coordinates using these soft keys



The pole for FK programming remains active until you

define a new one using FPOL.



Free programming of straight lines

Straight line without tangential connection

U To display the soft keys for free contour programming,

press the FK key

U



To initiate the dialog for free programming of straight

lines, press the FL soft key. The TNC displays

additional soft keys



U



Enter all known data in the block by using these soft

keys. The FK graphic displays the programmed

contour element in red until sufficient data is entered.

If the entered data describes several solutions, the

graphic will display the contour element in green (see

"Graphics during FK programming", page 250)



Straight line with tangential connection

If the straight line connects tangentially to another contour element,

initiate the dialog with the FLT soft key:

U



To display the soft keys for free contour programming,

press the FK key



U



To initiate the dialog, press the FLT soft key



U



Enter all known data in the block by using the soft

keys.



HEIDENHAIN iTNC 530



253



6.6 Path Contours—FK Free Contour Programming



Free programming of circular arcs

Circular arc without tangential connection

U To display the soft keys for free contour programming,

press the FK key.

U



To initiate the dialog for free programming of circular

arcs, press the FC soft key. The TNC displays soft

keys with which you can directly enter data on the

circular arc or the circle center.



U



Enter all known data in the block by using these soft

keys. The FK graphic displays the programmed

contour element in red until sufficient data is entered.

If the entered data describes several solutions, the

graphic will display the contour element in green (see

"Graphics during FK programming", page 250)



Circular arc with tangential connection

If the circular arc connects tangentially to another contour element,

initiate the dialog with the FCT soft key:

U



To display the soft keys for free contour programming,

press the FK key.



U



To initiate the dialog, press the FCT soft key.



U



Enter all known data in the block by using the soft

keys



Input possibilities

End point coordinates

Known data



Soft keys



Y



Cartesian coordinates X and Y

Polar coordinates referenced to FPOL



R15



30



30°

20



Example NC blocks

7 FPOL X+20 Y+30

8 FL IX+10 Y+20 RR F100

9 FCT PR+15 IPA+30 DR+ R15

20



254



10



X



Programming: Programming Contours



Known data

Length of a straight line



Soft keys



Y



Gradient angle of a straight line



IAN



AN



Chord length LEN of an arc



LEN





Gradient angle AN of an entry tangent

Center angle of an arc



X



Example NC blocks

27 FLT X+25 LEN 12.5 AN+35 RL F200

28 FC DR+ R6 LEN10 AN-45



Y



29 FCT DR- R15 LEN 15



35°



5

R1



.5

12



R6



10



15

45°

25



HEIDENHAIN iTNC 530



X



255



6.6 Path Contours—FK Free Contour Programming



Direction and length of contour elements



6.6 Path Contours—FK Free Contour Programming



Circle center CC, radius and direction of rotation in the FC/FCT

block

The TNC calculates a circle center for free-programmed arcs from the

data you enter. This makes it possible to program full circles in an FK

program block.



Y



If you wish to define the circle center in polar coordinates you must

use FPOL, not CC, to define the pole. FPOL is entered in Cartesian

coordinates and remains in effect until the control encounters a block

in which another FPOL is defined.

A circle center that was calculated or programmed

conventionally is then no longer valid as a pole or circle

center for the new FK contour: If you enter conventional

polar coordinates that refer to a pole from a CC block you

have defined previously, then you must enter the pole

again in a CC block after the FK contour.



5



R3

15



FPOL

CC



40°



X

20



Known data



Soft keys



Circle center in Cartesian coordinates

Circle center in polar coordinates

Rotational direction of an arc

Radius of an arc



Example NC blocks

10 FC CCX+20 CCY+15 DR+ R15

11 FPOL X+20 Y+15

12 FL AN+40

13 FC DR+ R15 CCPR+35 CCPA+40



256



Programming: Programming Contours



6.6 Path Contours—FK Free Contour Programming



Closed contours

You can identify the beginning and end of a closed contour with the

CLSD soft key. This reduces the number of possible solutions for the

last contour element.



Y



Enter CLSD as an addition to another contour data entry in the first and

last blocks of an FK section.

Beginning of contour:

End of contour:



CLSD+

CLSD–



CLSD+



Example NC blocks

12 L X+5 Y+35 RL F500 M3

13 FC DR- R15 CLSD+ CCX+20 CCY+35

...



CLSD–



X



17 FCT DR- R+15 CLSD-



HEIDENHAIN iTNC 530



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6.6 Path Contours—FK Free Contour Programming



Auxiliary points

For both free-programmed straight lines and free-programmed circular

arcs, you can enter the coordinates of auxiliary points that are located

on the contour or in its proximity.

Auxiliary points on a contour

The auxiliary points are located on the straight line, the extension of

the straight line, or on the circular arc.

Known data



Y



Soft keys

60.071

53



X coordinate of an auxiliary

point

P1 or P2 of a straight line



R10

70°



Y coordinate of an auxiliary

point

P1 or P2 of a straight line

X coordinate of an auxiliary

point

P1, P2 or P3 of a circular arc



50

42.929



Y coordinate of an auxiliary

point

P1, P2 or P3 of a circular arc



X



Auxiliary points near a contour

Known data



Soft keys



X and Y coordinates of an auxiliary point near

a straight line

Distance of auxiliary point to straight line

X and Y coordinates of an auxiliary point near

a circular arc

Distance of auxiliary point to circular arc



Example NC blocks

13 FC DR- R10 P1X+42.929 P1Y+60.071

14 FLT AN-70 PDX+50 PDY+53 D10



258



Programming: Programming Contours



Data whose values are based on another contour element are called

relative data. The soft keys and program words for entries begin with

the letter R for Relative. The figure at right shows the entries that

should be programmed as relative data.



Y

20



The block number of the contour element on which the

relative data are based can only be located up to 64

positioning blocks before the block in which you program

the reference.

If you delete a block on which relative data are based, the

TNC will display an error message. Change the program

first before you delete the block.



20



45°

20°



10



R20



The coordinates and angles for relative data are always

programmed in incremental dimensions. You must also

enter the block number of the contour element on which

the data are based.



90°



FPOL



10



35



X



Data relative to block N: End point coordinates

Known data



Soft keys



Cartesian Coordinates

relative to block N

Polar coordinates relative to block N



Example NC blocks

12 FPOL X+10 Y+10

13 FL PR+20 PA+20

14 FL AN+45

15 FCT IX+20 DR- R20 CCA+90 RX 13

16 FL IPR+35 PA+0 RPR 13



HEIDENHAIN iTNC 530



259



6.6 Path Contours—FK Free Contour Programming



Relative data



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