Tải bản đầy đủ - 79 (trang)


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definition of individualism indicate individuals who: “(1) view themselves as

independent of collectives, (2) are primarily motivated by their own preferences,

needs, rights, and the contracts they have established with others, (3) priority to their

person goals over the goals of others, and (4) emphasize rational analysis of the

advantages and disadvantages of associating with others” (Triandis, 1995, p. 2). It is

named as egoistic value orientation (Stern et al., 1995).

Hsu et al. (2010) stated that attitude toward a specific object can be determined by

one’s expectation of object.

Environmental consequences of the purchase can be understood as

environmentally responsible attitude in consumers’ purchase. It means they have

concerned for environment whenever they buy something. According to this,

Schwepker and Cornwell (as cited in Follows and Jobber, 2000) stated that an

environmental attitudinal measurement is combined by statements which reflect

concern for the variety of environmental issues. Similarly, in the study of

understanding green purchase, Kim (2011) also mentioned that consumers’ conscious

concern for the environmental consequences related to their private consumptions lead

them to be more favorable toward the environmentally responsible products. They

have a part in protecting and helping the environment become friendlier day by day. It

seems to be long-term objective of society.

Individual consequences of the purchase can be understood as consumers are

priority concern for themselves when they purchase something. Kim (2011) discussed

about individual consequences of the purchase that likely the purchase driven by

assessment of the product’s benefits would accrue directly and immediately to the

private individual, even sacrificing additional others. They do not care about the

others too much, included environment… And consequences of their purchase belong

to individual’s personal satisfaction and serves for individual’s personal benefits, such

as how convenient for them. It is short-term benefits and often relative to the

assessment of costs. For example, although encourage to use friendly bags when



shopping in supermarket in order to prevent the nylon bags which are harm to

environment. But, it may be inconvenient for them to bring friendly bags whenever

they go to supermarket. Moreover, the cost of friendly environmental bags always

higher than the nylon ones. If consumers buy the other friendly environmental bags in

the case of forgetting bring them, they will spend amount of money instead of free for

nylon ones. Likewise, in the research of Follows and Jobber (2000), the results

showed that consumers who took a importance placed on individual consequences of

using diapers were more likely not to intent to buy cloth ones.

According to McCarty and Shrum (2001), environmentally conscious

behaviors will be influenced by basic value orientations consumers hold with respect

to their interaction with others. In other words, the different personal values result in

their own different behaviors. Specifically, individualism focus on self whereas

collectivism emphasis on group goals.

People oriented collectivistic value are tend to more concerned with the

potential impact of their actions on the society, as well as the environment. That is, a

strong underlying awareness of welfare result in a higher attention to the

environmental consequences of the products which they intent to purchase. In so

doing, a product’s environmental consequences is one of important conditions which

collectivistic consumers consider before making purchase decision. Therefore, there is

a positive relationship between collectivistic values and attitude toward the

environmental consequences of the purchase. This relationship has supported in many

studies. Thøgerson and Grunert-Beckmann’s (1997) in a study of recycling and waste

prevention found that altruistic value (collectivistic value) has a positive relationship

with beliefs about the beneficial consequences (environmental consequences). Beside,

in study of the recycling of solid wastes, McCarty and Shrum (1994) indicated that

collectivistic value has positive relationship with importance of recycling

(environment consequences). It is hypothesized that:



Hypothesis 1: Collectivistic values will relate positively to attitude toward the

environmental consequences of the purchase.

On the other hand, collectivistic people give priority of group over personal

ones. They always take account environment into their actions. Furthermore, they are

also willing to be inconvenienced in order to help environment be greener and

friendlier. For example, collectivistic consumers prefer to buy green products rather

than alternative ones, although the eco-friendly products’ prices are higher. Or when

shopping in the supermarket, they are very please to take the reused environmentally

friendly bags, instead of using the non-responsible ones which are provided for free. It

is consistent with the recycling and waste prevention study (Thøgerson and GrunertBeckmann’s, 1997). The finding indicated that altruistic value (collectivistic value)

has a negative relationship with beliefs about cost consequences (individual

consequences). So, the hypothesis is:

Hypothesis 2: Collectivistic values will relate negatively to attitude toward the

individual consequences of the purchase.

In contrast, the characteristics of individualism are tend to stress personal rights

(for their own) over duties (for others). That is, a strong individual benefits’

enhancement lead to a less concern for their behaviors’ impact to others. These

consumers place an importance on their own needs; so they just only concern about

what products directly bring to them, even expense of others. For instance, the ecofriendly products are clearly good for environment than the non-responsible ones.

However, the alternative products are usually chosen by individualistic consumers due

to lower price; so as that they can save amount of money at the present for their own.

They do not care about the potential environmental impact when consuming the nonresponsible alternative products. Likewise, in the study of solid wastes’ recycling,

McCarty and Shrum (1994) determinate that individualistic value was positively

related to inconvenience of recycling (individual consequences). Given these

diversifying results, it is hypothesized that:




Hypothesis 3: Individualistic values will relate positively to attitude toward the

individual consequences of the purchase.

Hypothesis 4: Individualistic values will relate negatively to attitude toward

the environmental consequences of the purchase.









Environmental commitment (in green products version) or engaging in green

products can be understood as a promise to be loyal to green products. Commitment is

similar to loyalty (Hennig et al., 2004). According to Gounaris and Stathakopoulos

(2004), the attitudinal approve which is one of three primary different perspectives of

loyalty is based on psychological commitment, purchase intention, and word-ofmouth recommendations. In addition, a distinct difference between commitment and

loyalty is that loyalty emphasizes on past actions (Bowen and Chen, 2001; Zins, 2001)

through satisfaction, whereas commitment indicates on future ones.

On the other hand, according to Oliver (1980), customer satisfaction was

established when post purchase expectations match with actual performance. In other

words, to satisfy customers is the same as to meet their expectations. And, Namkung

and Jang (2007) showed the significant impact of customer satisfaction on

commitment, including revisit, recommendation, and positive word-of-mouth.

Moreover, Pura (2005) found that customer-perceived value significantly influences

commitment through customer satisfaction. But there has the conflict between

customer-perceived value from the environmental consequence of purchase and

individual personal’s benefits when consumer purchases environmentally responsible

products. For example, when using friendly reusable bags and refillable containers,

the environmental consequences are reductions in amount of raw materials used and

garbage generated. However, there are individual consequences, such as the



inconvenience of bringing a bag or container to the store. That may be significant

enough to override the importance placed on the environmental consequences. As a

result, consumers may be purchase non-responsible products if the responsible ones

are affect an individual’s personal satisfaction. It is negative consequences of

environmentally responsible behavior. And they are not called be an environmental

commitment person. In addition, there are many studies in investigating recycling

behavior indicated that an increase in perceived inconvenience or personal effort led

to the reduction of recycling intention (Dahab et al., 1995) and recycling behavior

(Kok and Siero, 1985; McCarty and Shrum, 1994; Thøgerson and Grunert-Beckmann,

1997). Thus, it is hypothesized that:

Hypothesis 5: Individual consequences of the purchase negatively affect to

environmental commitment.

Hypothesis 6: Environmental consequences of the purchase positively affect to

environmental commitment.



Attitude toward

Personal values

H3 +

Individualistic values

H4 -

Individual consequences

of purchase

H5 -



H2 -

Collectivistic values

H1 +

Environmental consequences

of purchase

Figure 2.1: The proposal model

H6 +



H1. Collectivistic values will relate positively to attitude toward the

environmental consequences of the purchase.

H2. Collectivistic values will relate negatively to attitude toward the individual

consequences of the purchase.

H3. Individualistic values will relate positively to attitude toward the individual

consequences of the purchase.

H4. Individualistic values will relate negatively to attitude toward the

environmental consequences of the purchase.







negatively affect


environmental commitment.

H6: Environmental consequences of the purchase positively affect to

environmental commitment.


This chapter mentions about definition of each concept in the model, as well as

the theoretical background which involved in. From previous literature, consumers’

attitude toward consequences of their purchase, which includes environmental

consequences of purchase and individual consequences of purchase, is impacted by

two main personal values: collectivistic values and individualistic values. And in turn,

environmental commitment is influenced by attitude toward environmental individual

consequences of purchase. To sum up, there are six hypotheses in this research.



The ways to find the answer for research question are mentioned in this

chapter, included: research design, sample and sample size, measurement, data

analysis method.


To dress a research design, the kind of model and measures of the constructs

were considered in order to make sure they were suitable. The focus of this research

was examining the impact of personal values on attitude toward consequences of

purchase and environmental commitment in green consumption. The operation model

was presented in Chapter 2. This research used primary data which was collected by

using convenience sampling method with a survey questionnaire. And informants

were customers in Vietnam.


In this study, the model includes 5 factors with 19 items, so that the minimum

sample size should be 19*5 = 95 observations. And the researcher collected 150



Based on the literature, the researcher set up the survey, using scales that were

already validated in previous studies. All these scales, which were translated into

Vietnamese using a translated and back translated procedure, used a five-point Likert

scale varying from 1 (completely disagree) to 5 (completely agree).



Personal values comprised two environmental value orientations: collectivistic

values (CV) and individualistic value (IV). The items measuring value orientations

were based on MCCarty and Shrum (2001)

CV1 I am working hard for the goal of a group, even it does not result in my

personal recognition.

CV2 I am a cooperative participant in group activities.

CV3 I am readily helping others in need of help.

CV4 I am doing what is good for most of the people in the group, even if it

means that individual will receive less.

CV5 I am sharing with others.


I am unique, different from others in many respects.


I am competitive with others.


I am working independently from others.

Consumers’ attitude toward individual consequences of the purchase (ICP)

was measured by 3 items which was adapted from scale of Follows and Jobber (2000)

ICP1 If green products do not fit my need properly, I will choose the

alternative ones.

ICP2 If green products are not convenient to use, I will choose the alternative


ICP3 If green products do not come in wide range of size, I will choose the

alternative ones.

Consumers’ attitude toward the environmental consequences of the

purchase (ECP) was measured by 4 items according scale of Winterich and Naylor


ECP1 It is important to me that products I use do not harm the environment.



ECP2 I consider the potential environmental impact of my purchase when

making many of my decisions.

ECP3 My purchase habits are affected by my concern for the environment.

ECP4 I am willing to be inconvenienced in order to take actions that are more

environmentally friendly.

Environmental commitment (EC) is, in this study, mentioned above that

commitment indicate on future actions through expectation, whereas loyalty

emphasize on past actions through satisfaction. So, the measuring commitment scale

was adjusted from Zeithaml et al., (1996)

EC1 I would like to purchase green products in the future.

EC2 I would like recommend green products to friends or others.

EC3 I would say positive things about green products to others.

EC4 I would encourage others to buy green products.


Based on literature from many previous studies, the author proposed six

hypotheses which were presented in Chapter 2. After that, the researcher drew the

proposal model indicating the relationship among personal values, consumers’ attitude

toward consequences of purchase, environmental commitment.

Next step, the preliminary scale were selected for measuring constructs, as well

as conducting main survey of questionnaire. The author adjusted the questionnaire

again in order to make it easier to understand and more suitable with Vietnam market.

After finishing the properly final questionnaire, the survey was conducted by using

convenience sample which collected from consumers in Vietnam.

The process of the quantitative research was followed these below steps:


Step 1: The researcher composed the questionnaire for the research:



After the author designed questionnaire in English, it was translated into

Vietnamese so as to deliver to respondents.(see in Appendix A and Appendix



Step 2: The researcher defined the sample size of the study:

In general rule, according to Hair et al. (2010), the minimum sample is

at least 5 observations for each scale; and the sample size should be 100 or

greater. In so doing, the model in this study consists of 5 factors with 19 items,

so that the minimum sample size should be 19*5 = 95 observations.

For standard multiple regression analysis, Tabachnick and Fidell (1991)

recommended the required sample should be n > 50 + 8m (m: number of

independent variables. In this research, there are 4 independent variables.

Therefore, to run multiple regression requires the minimum sample n > 50 +

8*4 = 82 observations.

The researcher used the sample size at 150 observations which was

appropriate for both EFA and multiple regression analysis.

After that, data was conducted based on convenience sampling method.


Step 3: The researcher delivered the questionnaire to the respondents at

the time the research was deployed.

The hard copies of questionnaires were directly delivering to

respondents. Besides, the online questionnaire was also broadcasted by Google

docs. The link of the online survey was sent to informants via email and

facebook. After clicking on the link, the respondents could answer the survey

by keying their answers and submitting them to the researcher.

Data collection was conducted during 12 days.


Step 4: The research checked again the received questionnaire in order

to make sure suitable results.



Literature review

Preliminary Scale

Quantitative research


Compose questionnaire

Define sample size

Delivery questionnaire and collect data

Data cleaning

Encode and input the data set

Data analysis


Cronbach’s alpha


Multiple Regression Analysis

Writing the report

Figure 3.1: The research process


For analyzing collected data in this study, researcher used the Statistical

Package for Social Science (SPSS) software version 22.0. Moreover, for sample

description, Microsoft Excel was used besides SPSS in order to statistic the sample,

compare the results. Next steps, the reliability and validity of scales were checked by

using Cronbach’s alpha and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). After that, Multiple

Regression was used for testing the relationship between independent variables and

dependent variables as proposed hypotheses.


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