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definition of individualism indicate individuals who: “(1) view themselves as
independent of collectives, (2) are primarily motivated by their own preferences,
needs, rights, and the contracts they have established with others, (3) priority to their
person goals over the goals of others, and (4) emphasize rational analysis of the
advantages and disadvantages of associating with others” (Triandis, 1995, p. 2). It is
named as egoistic value orientation (Stern et al., 1995).
Hsu et al. (2010) stated that attitude toward a specific object can be determined by
one’s expectation of object.
Environmental consequences of the purchase can be understood as
environmentally responsible attitude in consumers’ purchase. It means they have
concerned for environment whenever they buy something. According to this,
Schwepker and Cornwell (as cited in Follows and Jobber, 2000) stated that an
environmental attitudinal measurement is combined by statements which reflect
concern for the variety of environmental issues. Similarly, in the study of
understanding green purchase, Kim (2011) also mentioned that consumers’ conscious
concern for the environmental consequences related to their private consumptions lead
them to be more favorable toward the environmentally responsible products. They
have a part in protecting and helping the environment become friendlier day by day. It
seems to be long-term objective of society.
Individual consequences of the purchase can be understood as consumers are
priority concern for themselves when they purchase something. Kim (2011) discussed
about individual consequences of the purchase that likely the purchase driven by
assessment of the product’s benefits would accrue directly and immediately to the
private individual, even sacrificing additional others. They do not care about the
others too much, included environment… And consequences of their purchase belong
to individual’s personal satisfaction and serves for individual’s personal benefits, such
as how convenient for them. It is short-term benefits and often relative to the
assessment of costs. For example, although encourage to use friendly bags when



shopping in supermarket in order to prevent the nylon bags which are harm to
environment. But, it may be inconvenient for them to bring friendly bags whenever
they go to supermarket. Moreover, the cost of friendly environmental bags always
higher than the nylon ones. If consumers buy the other friendly environmental bags in
the case of forgetting bring them, they will spend amount of money instead of free for
nylon ones. Likewise, in the research of Follows and Jobber (2000), the results
showed that consumers who took a importance placed on individual consequences of
using diapers were more likely not to intent to buy cloth ones.
According to McCarty and Shrum (2001), environmentally conscious
behaviors will be influenced by basic value orientations consumers hold with respect
to their interaction with others. In other words, the different personal values result in
their own different behaviors. Specifically, individualism focus on self whereas
collectivism emphasis on group goals.
People oriented collectivistic value are tend to more concerned with the
potential impact of their actions on the society, as well as the environment. That is, a
strong underlying awareness of welfare result in a higher attention to the
environmental consequences of the products which they intent to purchase. In so
doing, a product’s environmental consequences is one of important conditions which
collectivistic consumers consider before making purchase decision. Therefore, there is
a positive relationship between collectivistic values and attitude toward the
environmental consequences of the purchase. This relationship has supported in many
studies. Thøgerson and Grunert-Beckmann’s (1997) in a study of recycling and waste
prevention found that altruistic value (collectivistic value) has a positive relationship
with beliefs about the beneficial consequences (environmental consequences). Beside,
in study of the recycling of solid wastes, McCarty and Shrum (1994) indicated that
collectivistic value has positive relationship with importance of recycling
(environment consequences). It is hypothesized that:



Hypothesis 1: Collectivistic values will relate positively to attitude toward the
environmental consequences of the purchase.
On the other hand, collectivistic people give priority of group over personal
ones. They always take account environment into their actions. Furthermore, they are
also willing to be inconvenienced in order to help environment be greener and
friendlier. For example, collectivistic consumers prefer to buy green products rather
than alternative ones, although the eco-friendly products’ prices are higher. Or when
shopping in the supermarket, they are very please to take the reused environmentally
friendly bags, instead of using the non-responsible ones which are provided for free. It
is consistent with the recycling and waste prevention study (Thøgerson and GrunertBeckmann’s, 1997). The finding indicated that altruistic value (collectivistic value)
has a negative relationship with beliefs about cost consequences (individual
consequences). So, the hypothesis is:
Hypothesis 2: Collectivistic values will relate negatively to attitude toward the
individual consequences of the purchase.
In contrast, the characteristics of individualism are tend to stress personal rights
(for their own) over duties (for others). That is, a strong individual benefits’
enhancement lead to a less concern for their behaviors’ impact to others. These
consumers place an importance on their own needs; so they just only concern about
what products directly bring to them, even expense of others. For instance, the ecofriendly products are clearly good for environment than the non-responsible ones.
However, the alternative products are usually chosen by individualistic consumers due
to lower price; so as that they can save amount of money at the present for their own.
They do not care about the potential environmental impact when consuming the nonresponsible alternative products. Likewise, in the study of solid wastes’ recycling,
McCarty and Shrum (1994) determinate that individualistic value was positively
related to inconvenience of recycling (individual consequences). Given these
diversifying results, it is hypothesized that:




Hypothesis 3: Individualistic values will relate positively to attitude toward the
individual consequences of the purchase.
Hypothesis 4: Individualistic values will relate negatively to attitude toward
the environmental consequences of the purchase.








Environmental commitment (in green products version) or engaging in green
products can be understood as a promise to be loyal to green products. Commitment is
similar to loyalty (Hennig et al., 2004). According to Gounaris and Stathakopoulos
(2004), the attitudinal approve which is one of three primary different perspectives of
loyalty is based on psychological commitment, purchase intention, and word-ofmouth recommendations. In addition, a distinct difference between commitment and
loyalty is that loyalty emphasizes on past actions (Bowen and Chen, 2001; Zins, 2001)
through satisfaction, whereas commitment indicates on future ones.
On the other hand, according to Oliver (1980), customer satisfaction was
established when post purchase expectations match with actual performance. In other
words, to satisfy customers is the same as to meet their expectations. And, Namkung
and Jang (2007) showed the significant impact of customer satisfaction on
commitment, including revisit, recommendation, and positive word-of-mouth.
Moreover, Pura (2005) found that customer-perceived value significantly influences
commitment through customer satisfaction. But there has the conflict between
customer-perceived value from the environmental consequence of purchase and
individual personal’s benefits when consumer purchases environmentally responsible
products. For example, when using friendly reusable bags and refillable containers,
the environmental consequences are reductions in amount of raw materials used and
garbage generated. However, there are individual consequences, such as the



inconvenience of bringing a bag or container to the store. That may be significant
enough to override the importance placed on the environmental consequences. As a
result, consumers may be purchase non-responsible products if the responsible ones
are affect an individual’s personal satisfaction. It is negative consequences of
environmentally responsible behavior. And they are not called be an environmental
commitment person. In addition, there are many studies in investigating recycling
behavior indicated that an increase in perceived inconvenience or personal effort led
to the reduction of recycling intention (Dahab et al., 1995) and recycling behavior
(Kok and Siero, 1985; McCarty and Shrum, 1994; Thøgerson and Grunert-Beckmann,
1997). Thus, it is hypothesized that:
Hypothesis 5: Individual consequences of the purchase negatively affect to
environmental commitment.
Hypothesis 6: Environmental consequences of the purchase positively affect to
environmental commitment.



Attitude toward

Personal values

H3 +

Individualistic values
H4 -

Individual consequences
of purchase

H5 -


H2 -

Collectivistic values
H1 +

Environmental consequences
of purchase

Figure 2.1: The proposal model

H6 +



H1. Collectivistic values will relate positively to attitude toward the
environmental consequences of the purchase.
H2. Collectivistic values will relate negatively to attitude toward the individual
consequences of the purchase.
H3. Individualistic values will relate positively to attitude toward the individual
consequences of the purchase.
H4. Individualistic values will relate negatively to attitude toward the
environmental consequences of the purchase.






negatively affect


environmental commitment.
H6: Environmental consequences of the purchase positively affect to
environmental commitment.
This chapter mentions about definition of each concept in the model, as well as
the theoretical background which involved in. From previous literature, consumers’
attitude toward consequences of their purchase, which includes environmental
consequences of purchase and individual consequences of purchase, is impacted by
two main personal values: collectivistic values and individualistic values. And in turn,
environmental commitment is influenced by attitude toward environmental individual
consequences of purchase. To sum up, there are six hypotheses in this research.



The ways to find the answer for research question are mentioned in this
chapter, included: research design, sample and sample size, measurement, data
analysis method.

To dress a research design, the kind of model and measures of the constructs
were considered in order to make sure they were suitable. The focus of this research
was examining the impact of personal values on attitude toward consequences of
purchase and environmental commitment in green consumption. The operation model
was presented in Chapter 2. This research used primary data which was collected by
using convenience sampling method with a survey questionnaire. And informants
were customers in Vietnam.

In this study, the model includes 5 factors with 19 items, so that the minimum
sample size should be 19*5 = 95 observations. And the researcher collected 150

Based on the literature, the researcher set up the survey, using scales that were
already validated in previous studies. All these scales, which were translated into
Vietnamese using a translated and back translated procedure, used a five-point Likert
scale varying from 1 (completely disagree) to 5 (completely agree).



Personal values comprised two environmental value orientations: collectivistic
values (CV) and individualistic value (IV). The items measuring value orientations
were based on MCCarty and Shrum (2001)
CV1 I am working hard for the goal of a group, even it does not result in my
personal recognition.
CV2 I am a cooperative participant in group activities.
CV3 I am readily helping others in need of help.
CV4 I am doing what is good for most of the people in the group, even if it
means that individual will receive less.
CV5 I am sharing with others.

I am unique, different from others in many respects.


I am competitive with others.


I am working independently from others.

Consumers’ attitude toward individual consequences of the purchase (ICP)
was measured by 3 items which was adapted from scale of Follows and Jobber (2000)
ICP1 If green products do not fit my need properly, I will choose the
alternative ones.
ICP2 If green products are not convenient to use, I will choose the alternative
ICP3 If green products do not come in wide range of size, I will choose the
alternative ones.
Consumers’ attitude toward the environmental consequences of the
purchase (ECP) was measured by 4 items according scale of Winterich and Naylor
ECP1 It is important to me that products I use do not harm the environment.



ECP2 I consider the potential environmental impact of my purchase when
making many of my decisions.
ECP3 My purchase habits are affected by my concern for the environment.
ECP4 I am willing to be inconvenienced in order to take actions that are more
environmentally friendly.

Environmental commitment (EC) is, in this study, mentioned above that
commitment indicate on future actions through expectation, whereas loyalty
emphasize on past actions through satisfaction. So, the measuring commitment scale
was adjusted from Zeithaml et al., (1996)
EC1 I would like to purchase green products in the future.
EC2 I would like recommend green products to friends or others.
EC3 I would say positive things about green products to others.
EC4 I would encourage others to buy green products.

Based on literature from many previous studies, the author proposed six
hypotheses which were presented in Chapter 2. After that, the researcher drew the
proposal model indicating the relationship among personal values, consumers’ attitude
toward consequences of purchase, environmental commitment.
Next step, the preliminary scale were selected for measuring constructs, as well
as conducting main survey of questionnaire. The author adjusted the questionnaire
again in order to make it easier to understand and more suitable with Vietnam market.
After finishing the properly final questionnaire, the survey was conducted by using
convenience sample which collected from consumers in Vietnam.
The process of the quantitative research was followed these below steps:

Step 1: The researcher composed the questionnaire for the research:



After the author designed questionnaire in English, it was translated into
Vietnamese so as to deliver to respondents.(see in Appendix A and Appendix

Step 2: The researcher defined the sample size of the study:
In general rule, according to Hair et al. (2010), the minimum sample is

at least 5 observations for each scale; and the sample size should be 100 or
greater. In so doing, the model in this study consists of 5 factors with 19 items,
so that the minimum sample size should be 19*5 = 95 observations.
For standard multiple regression analysis, Tabachnick and Fidell (1991)
recommended the required sample should be n > 50 + 8m (m: number of
independent variables. In this research, there are 4 independent variables.
Therefore, to run multiple regression requires the minimum sample n > 50 +
8*4 = 82 observations.
The researcher used the sample size at 150 observations which was
appropriate for both EFA and multiple regression analysis.
After that, data was conducted based on convenience sampling method.

Step 3: The researcher delivered the questionnaire to the respondents at

the time the research was deployed.
The hard copies of questionnaires were directly delivering to
respondents. Besides, the online questionnaire was also broadcasted by Google
docs. The link of the online survey was sent to informants via email and
facebook. After clicking on the link, the respondents could answer the survey
by keying their answers and submitting them to the researcher.
Data collection was conducted during 12 days.

Step 4: The research checked again the received questionnaire in order

to make sure suitable results.



Literature review

Preliminary Scale

Quantitative research

Compose questionnaire
Define sample size
Delivery questionnaire and collect data
Data cleaning
Encode and input the data set

Data analysis

Cronbach’s alpha
Multiple Regression Analysis

Writing the report
Figure 3.1: The research process

For analyzing collected data in this study, researcher used the Statistical
Package for Social Science (SPSS) software version 22.0. Moreover, for sample
description, Microsoft Excel was used besides SPSS in order to statistic the sample,
compare the results. Next steps, the reliability and validity of scales were checked by
using Cronbach’s alpha and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). After that, Multiple
Regression was used for testing the relationship between independent variables and
dependent variables as proposed hypotheses.