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CHAPTER 5. CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS
model (with attitude split to cognitive and affective), it tends to impact directly on
behavioral intention rather than via other mediator variables. This result was not
consistent with many “single attitude construct” studies (Chang et al., 2012) which
confirmed the heavy indirect effect of perceived convenience through other
Regarding the perceived ease of use, it plays the important role to change perceived
= .69), perceived usefulness (
and affective attitude (
= .61), cognitive attitude (
= .37). Although perceived ease of use do not directly
influence behavioral intention to use, it affects behavioral intention to use indirectly
through other mediators in the model (
About attitudes, this research is conducted to empirically test two aspects of
attitudes (cognitive and affective attitude) which can be separated to two sociopsychological constructs. According to Davis et al.’s (1989) finding, attitude adds
slight value in explaining the intention to use and the attitude has often been ignored
(or often treated as only affective construct) in TAM. Back to this research, the
overall effects ( ) of cognitive and affective attitudes on behavioral intention are .4
and .24, respectively, mean that the cognitive attitude is more powerful than
affective attitude in explaining the behavioral intention. Hence, if the researcher just
focuses on only affective attitude, the cognitive effects might be bypassed in the
wrong way. The research’s results also confirmed again the process of attitude
changes. In there, there are positive influence of cognitive attitude on affective
= .42) and affective attitude mediates the cognitive attitude and
Finally, perceived mobility has a significant effect on behavioral intention.
Therefore, the mobility is the important trait of mobile content services. This result
supports the other researches (Ajzen, 2002; Hong et al., 2008).
The purposes of this research are: (1) to empirically examine the factors that affect
consumer’s behavioral intention to use mobile content services and (2) to examine
whether two constructs of attitude (affective and cognitive attitude) can be separated
and the important effects of them on behavioral intention to use mobile content
Firstly, the findings shows that, perceived ease of use does not directly influence
behavioral intention to use; however, it affects behavioral intention to use indirectly
through other mediators in the model. Hence, enhancing the perceived ease of use is
helpful to facilitate perceived usefulness, attitudes and perceived convenience and
therefore behavioral intention to use is enhanced. This implication should be noted
for mobile content services project managers so that they can select a suitable
design for their mobile products such as simplifying user interfaces, making user
interface more friendly, increasing customer support, and integrating more help
wizards into mobile applications.
Secondly, it is important to perceive the process of attitude change. According to
Petty et al. (1994):
Attitude is social function. Attitude serves both private and public identity
concerns. Even though attitude has been treated as a vague and fragile
construct in the IS area, its importance on individual behavior and social
influence has been steadily recognized in psychology. Attitude is contagious
and as people work together, they express their own and listen to each other’s
attitude. Therefore, organizations and managers need to be care about the
positive attitude change (pp. 261-270).
Thus, understanding the construct of attitudes can help managers to control the
attitude change and next, improving the user’s acceptance of technology. Changes
in attitude happen quickly and easier than changes in values (Thompsonc & Hunt,
1996), so the manager should develop the positive attitudes change. For instance,
enhancing individual motivations, abilities and moods (direct influence), using the
message memory, message credibility, and two-sided communication (persuasive
Thirdly, regarding the practical aspect of implication, the findings provide mobile
operators and content developers with various strategies to sustain the usage of
mobile content services. First of all, they should focus on strategy to emboss
favorable attitudes among consumers in the both ways: focusing on consumer
emotion about products/services (attracting affective attitude) and creating
products/services values (attracting cognitive attitude).
Finally, developing the technology infrastructure to support the true mobility and as
mentioned above, mobile content services project managers should look into
improving perceived ease of use, convenience, and usability of mobile phones and
their mobile content services offering.
Limitation and Further Research
These findings provide meaningful implications for mobile content services market;
however, the research has some limitations.
Firstly, due to time constraints, only cross-sectional data were collected and the
survey was performed at a specific time point for empirical analysis.
Secondly, the sampling of all the practical users of mobile content services was not
feasible due to some limitations of the number and kinds of mobile
products/services in Vietnam. Moreover, the data collected from participants can be
different due to the usages and increased experiences (Venkatesh et al, 2003);
hence, the future study should focus on longitudinal research, which is helpful for
predicting user’s long-run belief and behavior, and can improve the comprehension
of causal relationships among variables.
Thirdly, when filling out the survey, the respondents may consider not only the
mobile content services they had actually used but also services they could see
themselves in the future. If they had not actually used any mobile content services,
the results might have been based on their thoughts or imagination, so the bias could
have been occurred.
Fourthly, the results of data analysis showed that there was the correlation between
two “unexplained variance of endogenous variable”. This correlation was defined as
the covariance of “
”. Back to the literature review, there is a case when give
system, perceived usefulness and one person may a strong behavior intention to use
the system without pass through any attitudes. Hence, this covariance can be
considered as the limitation of research model and the data market in this research
context. Therefore, the researcher should suggest more addition competitive models
to improve the research model.
Next, Davis et al. (1992) have found intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to be key
drivers of intention to use technology. Following this theory, a variable called
perceived enjoyment is an example of intrinsic motivation and perceived usefulness
is an example of an extrinsic motivation to use technology. Therefore, the further
research should investigate where the anchor factors and where the adjustment
factors, which impact on, perceived ease of use in the current research model.
Similarly, the external variables of TAM (TAM2) (Venkatesh & Davis, 2000) are
created to extend TAM to include addition determinants of perceived usefulness and
intention, so the next research should consider more antecedents of usefulness base
on social influence processes (subjective norm, voluntariness, image) and cognitive
instrumental process (output quality, result demonstrability).
Finally, although this research addressed a variety of factors, it might limit other
factors in connections with the acceptance of new technological services among
Vietnamese consumers. So, new addition research should be motivated to include
the effect of other important variables to current research model. For instance, in
addition to perceived usefulness (as recommendations above), perceived ease of use
(as recommendations above), other variables after behavioral intention such as the
actual usage could be investigated.
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