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Practice 1: Decide what ideas the words on bold type express. Use the table below

Practice 1: Decide what ideas the words on bold type express. Use the table below

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i.

We ….. not deliver until we receive the parts (Ability)

Practice 3: Continue completing the sentences below. Also indicate the idea expressed.
a. A LAN …….be installed in most modern offices. (…..)
b. She doesn’t look very well. She ……. stay in bed. (……)
c. Optical fibre ……. come down in price as production expands.(….)
d. You …… only export this electronic equipment if you get a speacial licence.(…..)
e. According to the timetable, the plane …… land in 20 minutes. (…..)

Forecasting with modal auxiliaries

When we talk about the future, we indicate the relative probability of events
happening as follows:
Certainty
More advanced systems will be introduced.
It won’t (will not) work out more than the existing telex.
You will be getting a lot of new facilities
Probability
All the signs indicate that….
It should be possible…..
The cost is likely to be…..
We ought to be able to install……
It’ll probably be 4 or 5 weeks….
Possibility
You might be interested…..
That could be useful……
Practice 1: Now use the table below to complete sentences d to j; a to c have been done for you
as examples.
Installation Schedule for Extension Telephones
Type of telephone

Special fast-rate

DIAVOX
AMBASSADOR
MICKEY MOUSE

3-5 days*
3-5 days
10-15 days

Business customers Residential
customers
2-4 weeks
5-10 weeks
3-5 weeks
4-6 weeks
…….
10-12 weeks

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REGENCY
3-5 days
4-6 weeks
5-7 weeks
* in all cases: first figure (3) represents a minimum waiting time for installation
large figure (5) represents a maximum waiting time for installation
Possibility
a. If you need one in a hurry, we could deliver a Diavox in 3 days, but you will have to
pay £15 extra
Probability
b. For a business customer we should/ought to be able to deliver an Ambassador in 4
weeks.
Certainty
c. For a residential customer, we will install a Mickey Mouse extension phone in 12
weeks.
d. If you need an Ambassador soon, we………deliver one in 5 days
e. For a business customer, we …..deliver a Regency extension in 4 weeks
f. It’s …….be 6 weeks before we can install a Regency extension for a residential
subscriber.
g. We…….be able to deliver a Mickey Mouse extension set before 10 weeks
h. All……..that delivery time will be around 7 or 8 weeks for the Diavox if you are a
residential subscriber.
i. We……..be able to install the Mickey Mouse in your house in 11 weeks time
j. You………receive the new Ambassador before 4 weeks if you are a residential
customer.

Review 3: Comparison
The comparative and superlative of one-syllable a adjectives ending in “y” are formed like this:
Adjectives
comparative
superlative
Great
Greater
The greatest
Noisy
Noisier
The noisiest
With most adjectives of two or more syllables, we use more and most:
Profitable
More
The most profitable
Profitable
Note the following important irregular comparatives and superlatives:
Good
Better
The best

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Bad
Far
Little
Many /much

Worse
Further
Less
more

The worse
The furthest
The least
The most

Note: how we use as ……as…..
He’s not as stupid as he looks. We have as much time as we need
Practice 1: Now fill in the blanks in the following sentences.
a. In my opinion, Bill is ….. inventor of all time. (great)
b. A Strowger exchange is …… a crossbar central office. (noisy)
c. A Strowger exchange is not ……. crossbar. (reliable)
d. Your English accent is ….. hers. (bad)
e. Bell made a lot of inventions, but the telephone was ……(important)
f. After inventing the automatic exchange, Strowger found that his business became
……(profitable)
g. A digital exchange works …. his brother. (fast)
h. He speaks English …… his brother. (good)

Review 4: Quantity and Amount
When we talk about quantity and amount, it is important to know if what we are talking about is
countable or uncountable. Look at the table below.
Countable
Uncountable
Calls
News
Companies
Equipment
People
Information
Telephone sets
Knowledge
Use the words below to express quantity and amount:
Approx
Countable
100%
Every/all
85%
Most
Many/a lot of
Some
Several
A few

Uncountable
All
Most
Much/a lot of
Some
-a little

50
5%
0%

Few
No/none

little
no/none

If you need to count something which is uncountable, you must add a countable noun.
Four pieces of equipment
One type of information
Practice: Use the table to help you fill in the blanks in the sentences below:
Year
Calls going via satellite
Calls going via sub-ocean cable
a. In
1960
1980
2000
2050
2100

I…..
ii…..
iii…..
iv…..
V……

b. In
1960
1980
2000
2050
2100

I…..
ii…..
iii…..
iv…..
V……

1960
0%
100%

1980
10%
90%

2000
70%
30%

2050
90%
10%

2100
100%
0%

Calls

Were
Will be

Transmitted
by satellite

Information

Was
Will be

Transmitted
by satellite

c. Now choose the correct answer:
i, By the year 2000 a lot of / much digital equipment will be used.
ii, Little / Few information was given about that much / piece of equipment.
iii, The switchboard received a little / a few calls about the future of satellites
iv, A few /Alittle / Some good weather can normally be expected in England during August
v, Many /Much people think that a few / a little knowledge is a good thing
vi, Many / A piece of news came in concerning a lot of / much /many engineers

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Review 5: Prepositions of location
The following diagrams will help to make clear which preposition you should use:

to

at

Out of

across

from

in

into

past

on

Look at the map and then fill in the blanks in the exercise that follows.

Greenwood

Bear
Inn

Slingdon

PN’s car
A
2

Golf course
Thurby

Nutley

b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.

He’s ….the A217
He’s coming…..Nultey
He’s going ….Greenwood
He’ll go ….to Thurby
He’s just gone … the windmill
When he’s…….Slingdon, he’ll turn right….. Thurby
Just after he’s gone ….. Slingdon, he’ll see the Bear Inn
When he comes …. Slingdon, he’ll see the golf course …. his right.

towards

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Review 6: Questions
1. Direct questions vs. polite questions
Notice the difference between direct questions and polite questions in the examples below:
Direct: Is she coming tomorrow?
When is she coming?
Polite: Could you tell me when she’s coming, please?
Would you mind telling me what the number is?
Now read the following dialogue and put in suitable questions. The information after each blank
will help you decide what the question should be. In the dialogue, Chric Bradley (CB) is talking
on the phone to Tom Davies (TD) about Bradfield Electronics’ radio-paging system.
CB: Good morning. Bradfield Electronics. Research Division.
TD: 1…………
CB: Chris Bradley speaking.
TD: Hello Chris. It’s Tom Davies from Swanford Tools here.
CB: 2……
TD: I’m very well thanks. I’m phoning about your latest radio-paging system. I’d like a bit more
information.
CB: 3……..
TD: There’s quite a lot I’d like to know, actually.
CB: OK, off you go!
TD: 4…….
CB: No, very little. Just a small device called “a pager” or “bleeper”
TD: 5……..
CB: In his pocket, because it’s very small
TD: 6……..
CB: Oh, about the size of a packet of cigarettes.
TD: 7…….
CB: He’s simply telephoned in the normal way and the pager bleeps
TD: 8…….
CB: Nothing. It’s free of charge.
TD: 9……..
CB: No, it doesn’t. The user must remain at or above ground lever
TD: 10…….
CB: Not at all. The quarterly rental’s only about £30
TD: 11…….
CB: No problem at all. We’ve got a large amount in stock.

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TD: 12………
CB: No, fine. We could organize a demonstration next week. Would next Thursday at 2p.m. be
alright for you?
TD: 13……….
CB: i, Good
ii, (14)…….?
TD: No, there’ll be several other people with me, mainly from the Sales Department.
CB: 15…….
TD: of course. It’s 53260. Extension 208
CB: Good. I look forward to seeing you next Thursday at 2 p.m
TD: 16……….
CB: Yes. Come straight up. My office is on the second floor
TD: Fine. Goodbye Chris.
CB: Bye Tom.
2. Tag questions
Structure:
Tag questions:

Statement,

+

tag?

Classification: Tag question is a short question, added to the end of the positive or negative
statements. Tag question is divided into two types, depending on the purposes.
1. If the tag is not a real question it has a flat or falling intonation. (A).
2. If the tag is a real question it has a rising intonation. (B).
Ex:
A. The E 10 was one of the earliest TDM systems, wasn’t it?
B. I don’t suppose the subscriber’s line uses PCM, does it?
•The verb in the statement should be the same tense as the verb in the tag. Normally a positive
statement is followed by a negative tag, and a negative statement is followed by a positive tag.
Ex:
It must be an advantage to have greater capacity, mustn’t it?
They didn’t call us yesterday, did they?
• If a modal (can, could, will, should, etc.) is used in the statement, then the same modal is used
in the tag part. If the statement doesn't use an auxiliary verb, then the auxiliary do is used in the
tag part.
Ex:
Those exchanges seem to be rather expensive, don’t they?
Practice: End the following sentences with the correct form of tag.
1. A new electronic exchange has just been installed,……………………..?
2.The processor is the central component of a computer system,………………….?
3. Computers have changed a lot our working conditions,………………………..?

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4. The PAM sampling unit samples the signals, ………………………?
5.A Strowger exchange isn’t as noisy as a crossbar central office,………………?
6. The telephone company handling this function is called the local exchange
carrier,………………?
7. In days of old there was only one long-distance carrier -AT&T, ………………?
8. A wide-area network (WAN) links metropolitan or local networks, usually over
common carrier facilities,……………………….?
9. A synchronous optical network (SONET) usually embodies a fiber-optic ring that will
permit transmission in both directions,…………………………?
10. The common channel signaling network works closely with the
PSTN, …..……………?

Review 7: Classification

The network

The local network

is composed of
consists of
comprises
is made up of

3 parts

can be /divided into
can be /is broken down into
can be /separated into

3 parts

A

+

B

There are two exchanges. Both are traditional electromechanical
exchanges

A

.

B

Two SPC exchanges are installed; one to extend the central area, the other
to serve the new area

A

70% of traffic is routed direct from one GSC to another GSC

+
B

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Use the map to complete the sentences below

Northern Area

Sisley

Central
Area

Southern Area

Fig 1: The Newtown local telephone area
a)
b)
c)
d)

The Newtown telephone network ……….2 secondary centres and………..
The Area ………….into 3 sub-areas; North………….
There ………..secondary centres………are connected to the DSC in Sisley by radio link
There ……junction routes between the secondary centres……….direct ……..via a local
exchange
e) Routing from……local exchange to …….can be direct or via ……exchanges
f) ……. Northern and Southern areas are served by ……..local exchanges

Review 8: Process description
Look at the following short descriptions of processes:
- The height of the pulse is measured
- and (it is) given a binary code
- each code is then transmitted as the train of pulses
- First, by selecting suitable modulation frequencies
- the conversations can be placed next to each other
- Then, they are transmitted as a group to the receive side
- Where a similar station demodulates the signals
- And extracts the various conversations
- Before they are transmitted to another exchange
Notice two features:

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the use of the present simple (active or passive)
Ex: is measured, are transmitted, extracts
the use of sequence markers
Ex: first, then, before etc
Describe the following processes in a similar way:
a)
-

A subscriber A/lift/the handset
Wait for /the dialing tone
Dial /the number
Hear /the ring tone
Subscriber B /pick up/the receiver
Conversation /take place
The two subscribers /replace the handsets

-

The handset /lift
a signal /send /the exchange
The exchange /send /a dialing tone
The number /dial
Subscriber B number /select /in the exchange
Subscriber A number /connect / subscriber B number
Conversation /take place
Handsets /replace
Connection /break

b)

Review 9: Explaining relationships

The greater the number of
channels, the larger the
number of repeaters

No. of channels

No. of repeaters

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The greater the diameter of the
parabola in the relation to the ware
length, the higher the degree of
directivity

Diameter or parabola

Degree of directivity
Note that when taking about “degree” or “frequency” we normally use “higher” or “lower”

Frequency

No. of channels

Number of samples/sec

Cost of transmission

a….

b….

Degree of
automation

Degree of
network
digitalisation

No. of manual operators

No. of exchanges

d….

c….
Now, make similar sentences for the following relationships:

4000

Frequency in Hz 3000
2000
2000 4000 6000 8000

Sampling rate /sec