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2 Related research on Difficulties in – and strategies for – using equivalence at word level in Vietnamese – English translation of students of English college class 2009 at Tra Vinh University

2 Related research on Difficulties in – and strategies for – using equivalence at word level in Vietnamese – English translation of students of English college class 2009 at Tra Vinh University

Tải bản đầy đủ

Difficulties in – and strategies for – using equivalence at word level in Vietnamese –
English translation of students of English college class 2009 at Tra Vinh University

main method in her study. Furthermore, she figured out effective ways the
author of this book used to find equivalence at cultural words.
To sum up, the pertinent studies of researchers and scholars as mentioned
above cannot said “enough”, these are considered as typical choice noted by the
researcher to take a theoretical basis for her thesis.
2.3 Justification of the present study
All the studies mentioned above set a very strong background for the
research. While most of the studies focused on problems of non-equivalence at
word level based on Baker’s theory, few ones were to explore small aspects of
problems. However, these small aspects usefully support common problems of
word non-equivalence. Besides, previous researches only demonstrated to make
clear theories of problems as well as suggested strategies for them, so the target
respondents were very large. As some related researches on the topic of this
study above, they weren’t surveyed on majored students specifically. Words on
books were target subjects noticed most because of audiences or readers’
attention, which also made difficulties for translators. Furthermore, the
researchers of these studies used analysis and contrastive methods to determine
and prove problems of equivalence at word level on linguistic and cultural
aspects. Though they didn’t chose majored students of linguistics for surveyed
participants, their studies found out problems of word non-equivalence or
difficulties of word equivalence. From these limitations sets basis for this study
to find new difficulties or problems existing on using word equivalence.
Particularly, they support the valuable background for helping majored students
get a better understanding of their difficulties as well as overcome their ones.

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Difficulties in – and strategies for – using equivalence at word level in Vietnamese –
English translation of students of English college class 2009 at Tra Vinh University

Chapter 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
To make a successful study, it’s actual to have many vital factors such as
theoretical background, a premise of the thesis, purposes, participants, and so
on. In that all, research methodology is one of main elements to contribute to
any study. This chapter is considered as a description of the done methods in
this study.
3.1 Research questions
To get along with the content of the study’s topic, the researcher aims to
seek answers for two questions:
The first question: “What difficulties do students have in using word
equivalence in Vietnamese – English translation?”. This question is to figure
out problems of English majors of TVU on choosing word equivalence between
two different languages, Vietnamese and English, in their translation process.
The second question is to find out a set of strategies that can help them
overcome their difficulties in using equivalence at word level, which is “What
strategies do they use to overcome their difficulties?”.
3.2 The Participants
The participants are one of vital factors contributing to the success of the
study. The chosen participants are all of 25 English-majored students of English
College class 2009 at TVU including 24 females and only one male. The reason
for choosing one group of participant is that all the participants have been
provided with the same training syllabus and curriculum and the same teaching
approaches. Therefore, their responses to the questionnaire may be different not
because of imbalanced exposure to the training programs. Besides, the factor of
gender is not of any aims of the study, thus, that almost all of the participants
are female does not really matter.

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Difficulties in – and strategies for – using equivalence at word level in Vietnamese –
English translation of students of English college class 2009 at Tra Vinh University

3.3 The research instruments
To investigate the difficulties in using equivalence at word level in
Vietnamese – English translation of majors of English College class 2009 at
TVU, the survey questionnaire considered as an instrument was designed with
13 close-ended questions (see appendix). The questionnaire is based on both the
background theory and the practices in the research area and the practical
situation of studying translation and interpretation of the participants.
To carry out the aim of the research focusing on linguistic and cultural
aspects, the questionnaire was especially presented in these backgrounds. All
close-ended questions are designed as five point Likert scale questionnaire like
strongly agree, agree, uncertain, disagree and strongly disagree. However, the
question 4 and 9 show how students’ choices in using word equivalence are.
More clearly, in the total of 13 close-ended questions, the first question is
students’ awareness of the importance of equivalence translation at word level
for a good translation. To get some their difficulties in using word equivalence,
the questions are presented as follow 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, and 13, consisting of
two aspects mentioned above. Additionally, questions such as 2, 4, 9, and 10
present students’ ways for finding word equivalence in their translation process.
3.4 Research Procedures
Since the purpose is to investigate on difficulties of majored students in
using word equivalence in Vietnamese – English translation, 25 students of
English college class 2009 are chosen for the survey. Besides, the study is
conducted qualitatively with the questionnaire. The questionnaire was made to
25 copies and delivered to 25 participants. Before filling out the questionnaire,
participants were slowly and clearly explained for the survey purpose, as well
as, for each question by the researcher. Due to all of close-ended questions, they
could answer in a short time. It took participants only 5 to 10 minutes to
respond to the questionnaire. However, only 24 copies were delivered because
one participant was absent for her personal reasons. When collected data is

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Difficulties in – and strategies for – using equivalence at word level in Vietnamese –
English translation of students of English college class 2009 at Tra Vinh University

completed, responses to the questionnaire are coded and analyzed by a
statistical computer software, SPSS.
3.5 Data processing method
As mentioned, there are five levels of agreement and disagreement on
each question. Otherwise, there are only two questions presented by choosing
answers without agreement and disagreement levels. After gathering the
completed questionnaire from respondents, the researcher begins to code and
analyze the data using SPSS program.

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Difficulties in – and strategies for – using equivalence at word level in Vietnamese –
English translation of students of English college class 2009 at Tra Vinh University

Chapter 4: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
As mentioned above, after the process of data collection, the number of
different choices on frequency as well as percentage are calculated and
presented in the following tables. From these showed results, the researcher
will put into a discussion to make clear the awareness of the importance and
difficulty of word equivalence in Vietnamese – English translation, the
students’ difficulties in finding and using word equivalence, and some used
ways to find closest equivalence.
4.1 Findings
4.1.1 Awareness of the importance and problem of word equivalence in
Vietnamese – English translation.
There are two tables showing students’ awareness of how the importance
and problem of word equivalence are.
Frequency
Valid strongly agree
agree
uncertain
Total

1
17
6
24

Percent
(%)
4.2
70.8
25.0
100.0

Table 5: The importance of word equivalence
Table 5 reveals that only student (4.2%) strongly agrees that word
equivalence is one of important criteria to launch a good translation. 17
students (70.8%) agree with this while 6 students (25%) were uncertain. None
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Difficulties in – and strategies for – using equivalence at word level in Vietnamese –
English translation of students of English college class 2009 at Tra Vinh University

of them denies the importance of equivalence at word level. The data shows
that to form a good translation, all levels from word level to textual one play a
role as a material to convey information between two languages.
Furthermore, seeking word equivalence is not really easy due to different
characteristics between two languages and cultural backgrounds, causing nonequivalence at word level.
Frequency Percent
Valid strongly agree
7
29.2
agree
14
58.3
uncertain
3
12.5
Total
24
100.0
Table 6: Difficult word non - equivalence to translators
Table 6 shows almost all students recognize that non-equivalence at word
level is a first difficulty to translators. However, there are 3 students who
cannot be sure whether word non-equivalence causes the difficulty for almost
all translators or not. No one denies this problem. Frankly, the data presents a
valid percentage of 29.2% for “strongly agree”, 58.3% for “agree” and 12.5%
for “uncertain”.
4.1.2 Students’ difficulties in finding and using word equivalence
4.1.2.1 The linguistic aspect
Firstly, the quality of translation must be relied on the work of a skillful
translator in general. This is considered as translators’ linguistic knowledge or
competence in particular. Table 7 presents students’ recognition of the
influence of linguistic knowledge to finding and using word equivalence.

Valid strongly agree
agree
uncertain
Total

Frequency Percent
11
45.8
12
50.0
1
4.2
24
100.0

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Difficulties in – and strategies for – using equivalence at word level in Vietnamese –
English translation of students of English college class 2009 at Tra Vinh University

Table 7: Linguistic knowledge of translators to finding and using word
equivalence
According to the data, there are 11 out of 24 students (45.8%) strongly
agree that the linguistic knowledge of a translator can influence finding and
using word equivalence. Besides, 12 students (50%) agree with this difficulty
and only one student (4.2%) has no opinion with this. None of them rejects this
idea.
Secondly, Table 8 shows students’ evaluation about a problem of word
misunderstanding of the SL can cause a problem of using word equivalence.

Valid strongly agree
agree
Total

Frequency Percent
13
54.2
11
45.8
24
100.0

Table 8: A problem due to word misunderstanding of source language
As investigated result, all students are undoubtful to this problem.
Clearly, there are 11 students (45.8%) agree with the difficulty in using
equivalence at word level due to word misunderstanding. Evenly, 13 students
(54.2%) strongly agree with this difficulty. The analyzed result above shows all
students’ consideration that word misunderstanding is not simple due to
translators’ abilities, which are considered as a problem.
Besides, according to the survey result presented in Table 9, there are 5
students (20.8%) strongly agree that semantically complex words in the SL
cause their difficulty in word choice. Moreover, 17 out of 24 (70.8%) students
agree with this issue while there are only two students who are not sure, and no
one can deny this. This percentage also determines a general of English majors’
difficulty of finding word equivalence.

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Difficulties in – and strategies for – using equivalence at word level in Vietnamese –
English translation of students of English college class 2009 at Tra Vinh University

Frequency Percent
strongly agree
5
20.8
agree
17
70.8
uncertain
2
8.3
Total
24
100.0
Table 9: Difficulties in semantically complex words to word equivalence
The data in Table 10 show students’ another difficulty in finding word
equivalence is due to Vietnamese address and reference system with 12
students (50%) out of 24 choosing “agree”, and even 3 students (12.5%)
choosing “strongly agree”. However, there are 7 students who cannot be sure
that Vietnamese address and reference system leads to the difficulty in word
choice. Only 2 students (8.3%) think that Vietnamese address and reference
system does not affect their word using and choose “disagree”. None of them
chooses “strongly disagree” for this difficulty.
Frequency Percent
Valid strongly agree
agree
uncertain
disagree
Total

3
12
7
2
24

12.5
50.0
29.2
8.3
100.0

Table 10: Vietnamese address and reference system to word equivalence
4.1.2.2 The cultural aspect
Under the cultural perspective, translators are supposed to be the
messengers whose task is to convey a message from one language to another in
anything but an alien way that may cause confusion or feeling of foreignness to
target language readers. Also, this difficulty is surveyed in the questionnaire,
and showed in Table 11. The data announces that percentage of major students’
choosing “strongly agree” and “agree” is very high. There are 13 students
(54.2%) strongly agreeing with this problem, 10 students (41.7%) choosing
“agree”, and only one student having no idea. Clearly, the analysis expresses
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Difficulties in – and strategies for – using equivalence at word level in Vietnamese –
English translation of students of English college class 2009 at Tra Vinh University

the different cultural characteristics between different languages cause a
problem in translation; especially finding word equivalence.
Frequency Percent
13
54.2
10
41.7
1
4.2
24
100.0

Valid strongly agree
agree
uncertain
Total

Table 11: Different cultural characteristics to translation obstacles
Concomitantly, because of concepts of two different cultural
backgrounds, translators cannot find Vietnamese words equivalent to English
ones or these words cannot cover all the meaning of original ones. This causes
the problem of word non-equivalence. As mentioned in the background, it is
definitely not a simple task because culture is a too broad and sophisticated
notion to be fully grasped.
Frequency Percent
5
20.8
15
62.5
4
16.7
24
100.0

Valid strongly agree
agree
uncertain
Total

Table 12: Word non equivalence due to different cultural concepts
The survey in Table 12 shows that most students believe differences of
cultural concepts cause word non-equivalence. Particularly, 15 per 24 students
(62.5%) agree with this, even 5 students (20.8%) strongly agree. However, 4
students (16.7%) are unsure with this problem. According to the following
Table 12, it presents students’ recognition about existence of word nonequivalence is due to cultural concepts.
As the presented investigation in Table 13, there are 18 students (75%)
agreeing that writing style is also a cause for the difficulty in using equivalence
at word level.

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Difficulties in – and strategies for – using equivalence at word level in Vietnamese –
English translation of students of English college class 2009 at Tra Vinh University

Frequency Percent
Valid strongly agree
agree
uncertain
disagree
Total

3
18
2
1
24

12.5
75.0
8.3
4.2
100.0

Table 13: Influencing writing styles to word equivalence
Concurrently, 3 students (12.5%) strongly agree with this
difficulty while only one student (4.2%) choosing “disagree’ for this difficulty,
and two students (8.3%) cannot decide to whether the writing style is really
problematic. No one choose “strongly disagree”. The result is proved the
majority of students recognize the occurrence of another difficulty in writing
styles is possible.
4.1.3 Students’ used ways to find word equivalence
The following Tables will express some ways chosen for difficulties in
finding word equivalence or having word non-equivalence. First of all, before
taking consideration into students’ ways, the first question as well as the first
Table lets them make comments on contexts to help them not hesitate to give
exact ideas for next questions.

Frequency Percent
Vali strongly agree
6
25.0
agree
16
66.7
d
uncertain
1
4.2
disagree
1
4.2
Total
24
100.0

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Difficulties in – and strategies for – using equivalence at word level in Vietnamese –
English translation of students of English college class 2009 at Tra Vinh University

Table 14: Using based word equivalence on contexts
According to the percentage in the following Table 14, 16 out of 24
students (66.7%) agree that almost all translators use word equivalence basing
on different contexts or SL. Evenly, 6 students (25%) strongly agree with this
issue above. However, only one student (4.2%) does not recognize using word
equivalence is based on contexts and only one student (4.2%) cannot decide to
choose “agree” or “disagree”. This question shows English major students’ an
initial and general view of translators’ usages to find word equivalence, can be
a little similar to their ways.
To know in what ways English majors use to find equivalence at word
level, let’s consider and analyze three tables as follow:

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