Tải bản đầy đủ
Part IV: Managing and Operating IIS 7.0

Part IV: Managing and Operating IIS 7.0

Tải bản đầy đủ

97823c18.qxd:WroxPro

2/4/08

7:53 PM

Page 624

97823c18.qxd:WroxPro

2/4/08

7:53 PM

Page 625

IIS and Operations
Management
After a web site has been built and deployed into a production environment, what then? How do
you ensure uptime for your web application in an environment that is subject to ongoing changes,
is exposed to the hailstorm of the Internet, or is subject to more traffic than any other server? How
do you keep an IIS 7.0 server operational? The answers to these questions have many forms. After
deploying a web server, in some ways, the work has just begun.
Maintaining a web site involves a range of knowledge, skills, and abilities. There are a few different approaches to managing the operations of IIS servers, and all of them have some merit. You
will, undoubtedly, want control and predictability from your site on an ongoing basis. Most technicians involved in managing operations will value a constant flow of information and metrics.
In this chapter, we introduce some important topics related to managing production IIS servers. To
keep your servers up and the hosted applications functioning properly, you need a way to organize your team differently from when the application was under development. You need a system
and organization suited to respond to the daily troubles that plague today’s web server, and to be
proactive about ensuring the viability of your investment in the hosted application. We review
some of the best sources for putting together a world-class structure for ensuring uptime. We
begin by looking more at organizational processes, and then return to a more technical focus later
in the chapter. Toward the end of the chapter, we cover the mechanics of two important operation
tasks: approving hotfixes and conducting backups.

Management Approaches and Principles
The requirements for a professional web site will always imply some level of predictable uptime
and minimum performance goals. No one would expect a web site to respond inconsistently or
sporadically every day. Of course, the margin of error, or window of acceptable downtime, will

97823c18.qxd:WroxPro

2/4/08

7:53 PM

Page 626

Part 4: Part IV: Managing and Operating IIS 7.0
vary greatly depending on the nature of the web site and the role it plays in fulfilling the mission of a
business. A professional web site is a business tool, whether it’s used occasionally for simple text
updates or used extensively by customers to conduct eCommerce transactions.
In many cases, a particular web site is just one site among many, and is hosted on a server that depends on
a network infrastructure with ties — complex and often fragile — to other systems in your organization.
The point here is that not only may a web site break on its own, but also it can be hosted in the middle of a
network that can be susceptible to any number of failings. In this kind of environment, ensuring uptime
and performance is a matter of operational management.
Managing operations for IIS applications and servers is about meeting the expectations for the web site
every day. Control, predictability, and information flow are all key elements of web server operations
management. If you have web servers in operation, yet lack operational systems, where can you turn to
get started?
Two excellent sources of some great tools for bringing operational systems to bear are the widely recognized authorities on technical management: the IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) and the closely related
Microsoft Operations Framework (MOF).

ITIL Standards
Within the last 20 years, technical managers have consolidated their thinking, to varying degrees, into a
body of management practices. The IT Infrastructure Library, or ITIL (www.itil.org.uk/), has become a
leading authority for technical management practices. Based in the United Kingdom and deployed
across the globe, the ITIL offers a body of knowledge, training practicum, and certification that is known
as the standard for technical management assets and templates.
Chartered in the 1980s under the British government, and originally written as 31 volumes, the foundation publications were retitled in the 1990s to be seen as guidance and not as a formal method, and since
then ITIL adoption has gained world-wide momentum. This wider adoption and awareness have led to
a number of other standards, including ISO/IEC 20000, which is now the conceptual framework within
which the latest version of ITIL operates.
ITIL v3 became available in May 2007. The new version recasts the ITIL assets against the modern business and technical landscape and organizes the body of knowledge into five core texts, including:


Service Strategy



Service Design



Service Transition



Service Operation



Continual Service Improvement

With v3, ITIL extends its relevance to cover the technical priorities of modern business, including technical
service management. Part of the framework is the all-important toolkit. The ITIL Toolkit is a collection of
resources brought together to accompany the principles of ITIL and help you accomplish them in your
daily operations. The materials included in the toolkit are intended to assist in both understanding and

626

97823c18.qxd:WroxPro

2/4/08

7:53 PM

Page 627

Chapter 18: IIS and Operations Management
implementation and are therefore targeted at both existing ITIL users and beginners alike. The toolkit
includes:


A detailed guide to ITIL and service management.



The ITIL Factsheets — 12 two-page documents, serving as a concise summary of each of the
ITIL disciplines.



A management presentation for ITIL (which doubles as a proposal for service management).



A service management audit/review questionnaire and report in Microsoft Excel workbook form.



Materials to assist in the reporting of the above results (for example, templates).

When developing applications on the IIS 7.0 platform, ITIL can bring you two levels of benefits. First, you
can take the ITIL templates and use them to identify the common requirements, risks, and techniques used
across the globe for building, deploying and maintaining web applications. The templates are comprehensive aides to planning. Second, you can base your designs and directions on the strategic guidance found in
the ITIL white papers, ensuring that your application plans are based on proven principles.
ITIL is a terrific source for many things, but it’s not the only recognized source for guidance. Other
widely used frameworks include the Information Services Procurement Library (ISPL), the Application
Services Library (ASL), the Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM), the Capability Maturity
Model (CMM/CMMI), the Control Objectives for Information and related Technology (COBIT), the
Project Management Institute’s Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK), and the Microsoft
Operations Framework (MOF). MOF is a Microsoft-centric superset of ITIL, and it makes perfect sense to
use MOF when talking about managing IIS operations.

MOF: Microsoft’s ITIL Superset
Before we apply the MOF processes to a couple of sample IIS operations, let’s take a moment to properly
introduce it. Microsoft Operations Framework (MOF) is a set of publications providing both descriptive and
prescriptive guidance on IT service management. It’s an actionable version of ITIL for Microsoft servers.
Where ITIL is a consortium of expertise, MOF is limited to Microsoft’s perspective on managing IT using
Microsoft’s software. This limited focus is also the benefit of MOF, since the framework has the benefit of
Microsoft’s insider knowledge of their own products. You can get everything you need from MOF by
visiting www.microsoft.com/technet/solutionaccelerators/cits/mo/mof/default.mspx.
Microsoft published the first elements of MOF in 2000 to help their customers achieve reliability, availability,
and manageability for mission-critical systems that operate on the Microsoft platform. MOF is definitely one
of the best sources for guidance covering operational systems for IIS servers. Built from the precursor standards found in the ITIL, MOF provides in-depth technical guidance covering the spectrum of technology.
MOF addresses the people, process, and technology issues that define today’s complex and heterogeneous
environments.
MOF includes operational knowledge captured in white papers and guidance presented through three
formats: Service Improvement Programs (SIPs), Service Management Functions (SMFs), and Solution
Accelerators (SAs). All these components are centralized into these foundation elements of MOF:


MOF Team Model for Operations



MOF Process Model for Operations

627

97823c18.qxd:WroxPro

2/4/08

7:53 PM

Page 628

Part 4: Part IV: Managing and Operating IIS 7.0


MOF Risk Management Discipline for Operations



MOF Service Management Functions



MOF Operations Management Reviews

The MOF Process Model provides the description of processes that operations teams perform in order to
manage and maintain IT services. It is organized around four quadrants and 20 Service Management
Functions.
The MOF Team Model simplifies the view of team roles and helps management focus on organizing people
effectively. It supports the Process Model by providing guidelines for organizing people into operational
teams, or role clusters, and describes the key activities within each role cluster. The MOF Risk Model helps
organizations manage risk while running their businesses. It is composed of a set of guiding principles and
a risk management process.
There is another organizational layer to MOF. To show the stages of applying MOF, Microsoft uses a circle divided into four quadrants. Figure 18-1 shows the four quadrants and their relationships.

n
izi

Change
Initiation
Review

Change Management
Configuration Management
Release Management

Ch
a

g

in
ng

g

Op
tim

Service Level Management
Capacity Management
Availability Management
Security Management
Infrastructure Management
Financial Management
Workforce Management
Service Continuity Management

Release
Readiness
Review

SLA
Review

Figure 18-1

628

ti n

at

pp
Service Desk
Incident Management
Problem Management

in g

Su

or

Op

g
Operations
Review

er

Servicing Monitoring & Control
System Administration
Network Administration
Directory Services Administration
Security Administration
Storage Management
Job Scheduling

97823c18.qxd:WroxPro

2/4/08

7:53 PM

Page 629

Chapter 18: IIS and Operations Management


Optimizing Quadrant — The optimization practices found in MOF guide teams toward more
effective service-level management, capacity planning, and other longer-range planning efforts.
Practices outlined in the associated MOF Change Initiation Review help teams put recommendations into action.



Changing Quadrant — MOF guides you through initiation, analysis, planning, and deployment
stages to ensure that change creates the desired effect without undesired consequences.



Supporting Quadrant — The MOF Supporting Quadrant describes the processes and practices
required to fully support the efficient usage of an IT infrastructure. Team roles defined in this
quadrant focus on solving end-user issues and resolving broader IT problems.



Operating Quadrant — Improvements in operations processes have the intended consequence
of reducing costs while enabling agility. The demands for availability and security mean that
operations have to be focused and effective. Regular operations reviews promote continuous
improvement in operations processes.

The following table outlines the different Service Management Functions (SMFs) and their goals:
MOF Function

Benefit to IIS Operations

Availability Management

Maximizes uptime of IIS servers.

Capacity Management

Ensures responsiveness by matching IIS server resources to visitor demand levels.

Change Management

Controls the impact of maintenance and improvement activities.

Configuration Management

Governs the settings that determine the security and performance of your IIS servers.

Directory Services Administration

Offers guidance on deploying and managing AD in the enterprise, which is often a dependency service for IIS systems.

Financial Management

Covers budgeting, cost accounting, cost recovery, cost allocations, charge-back models, and revenue accounting. The key
aspects of financial management that ITIL and MOF address
are its linkage to other service management functions.

Incident Management

Detects incidents and then targets the correct support resources
to resolve the incidents.

Infrastructure Engineering

Develops and uses consistent standards and policies for infrastructure. Helps to ensure that releases are compatible with the
existing infrastructure systems.

Job Scheduling

Ensures the efficient processing of data at a pre-determined
time and in a prescribed sequence to maximize the use of system resources and minimize the impact to online users.

629

97823c18.qxd:WroxPro

2/4/08

7:53 PM

Page 630

Part 4: Part IV: Managing and Operating IIS 7.0

630

MOF Function

Benefit to IIS Operations

Network
Administration

Defines procedures to operate network services on which IIS servers
depend — including DHCP, WINS, and DNS — on a day-to-day basis. It
also covers maintaining the hardware layer on which the services reside.

Problem Management

Identifies and resolves the root causes of any significant or recurring incidents to keep IIS servers more stable.

Release Management

Provides the processes and controls that ensure that all changes made to IIS
systems are deployed successfully into the production environment in the
least disruptive manner.

Security
Administration

Provides processes for maintaining a safe computing environment. The six
basic requirements, or tenets, that ensure confidentiality, integrity, and
availability are:
Identification — Describes how users identify themselves to the system.
Authentication — Describes how users prove to the system that they are
who they claim to be.
Authorization — Ensures that the appropriate privileges are granted to
users so that they can perform certain functions on the system.
Confidentiality — Ensures that only authorized people can see data stored
on the network.
Integrity — Ensures that data are not garbled, lost, or changed when traveling across the network.
Nonrepudiation — Provides proof of data transmission or receipt.

Security Management

Builds processes used for web security planning and management in an
organization. The overall objective of the SMF is to describe “what” to do
rather than “how” to do it.

Service Continuity
Management

Ensures constant availability of web services at all times. This availability is
won through resilient IIS and dependent systems, and recovery options for
your IIS servers.

Service Desk

Provides an organized and coordinated front line to technical support staff
members who are working independently in various geographical locations. Stitching this capability together right means quick answers, straightforward resolutions, and accurate results.

Service Level
Management

Increases service continuity by adding formal processes. The six major
processes of Service Level Management are setup activities, service catalog,
service level agreements, service level monitoring, service level reporting,
and service level agreement review.

Service Monitoring
and Control

Provides for real-time observation and alerting of health conditions and,
where appropriate, automatically correcting any exceptions.

97823c18.qxd:WroxPro

2/4/08

7:53 PM

Page 631

Chapter 18: IIS and Operations Management
MOF Function

Benefit to IIS Operations

Storage
Management

Leverages the optimum storage array to support the performance needs of
IIS, and manages the life of information over its life cycle of relevance.

System
Administration

Provides day-to-day administrative services for the computing environment.
This entails managing network accounts (users, groups, distribution lists, and
so on) and network resources (servers, printers, storage devices, and so on).

Workforce
Management

Attends to all areas of management by partitioning work among appropriately skilled personnel.

MOF service functions have detailed documents that offer rich process definitions, templates, and other collateral that can flesh out how you shape your IIS operations. Visiting www.microsoft.com and searching
for MOF content will help you find everything you need to get your IIS operations into a predictable, efficient program. If you are interested in a more thorough and expert inculcation, there are several professional
training options made available through Microsoft and a network of training partners. Use your favorite
search engine to search for “MOF training.”
Making use of the SMFs is definitely a terrific start to defining your IIS operations program. If any program is made of people, process, and technology, then the MOG library, found at the Microsoft web site,
will satisfy the process leg of the triangle. The remaining legs are addressed by the MOF Solution
Accelerators and the MOF Team Model.
The Solution Accelerators are available on Microsoft’s TechNet web site (www.microsoft.com/
technet) and provide concentrated advice and tools on specific solutions, such as AD and IIS. At
the time of this writing, Microsoft has yet to provide IIS 7.0 specific guidance via solution accelerators;
you can check for the latest advice using the full catalog of the accelerators at www.microsoft.com/
technet/solutionaccelerators/listings/product.mspx. Note that you can reuse plenty of the
guidance written for IIS 6.0 for your IIS 7.0 operations. Many processes will work regardless of the IIS
platform on which you operate.
The MOF Team Model is about defining roles and responsibilities, to ensure coverage across the breadth
of projects and tasks that you need to manage for smooth operations. We cover the MOF Team Model in
more detail in the “Role-Based Administration” section below. Figure 18-2 presents the relationship of
the MOF assets.
Now that we have given you a general introduction to MOF, here are some more specific ways you can
leverage it for IIS operations.

Applying MOF to IIS Operations Management
The following sections describe just a few ways in which you can use the MOF library to structure your
operations to meet your requirements for uptime and performance (for example, SLA obligations). The
two sections we picked are especially relevant to IIS. We first cover role-based administration to show
how operations teams can be layered to provide full coverage of your IIS operations challenges.
Afterward, we cover change management to illustrate how operations teams can reduce the risks of
downtime when deploying changes to their web servers.

631

97823c18.qxd:WroxPro

2/4/08

7:53 PM

Page 632

Part 4: Part IV: Managing and Operating IIS 7.0
Solution accelerators apply
Microsoft technology and
automation, in addition to
guidance from one or more SMFs
to achieve a particular IT objective

Solution
Accelerator

Service improvement projects
provide prescriptive guidance for
implementing a particular SMF
into an organization

MOF
Disciplines
MOF
Team
Model

MOF
Process
Model

Service
Improvement
Project

Service
Management
Functions

Figure 18-2

Role-Based Administration
IIS operations usually involve a team-based approach. Many players can be involved in managing web
applications, including developers, system engineers, service desk personnel, and managers of all types.
To keep your environment secure and performing well, each person involved in the operations program
should only have the rights and privileges necessary to do the job at hand. The widely accepted network
administration concept of Least-Privilege User Account (LUA) provides a great justification for limiting
access, both from a security point of view as well as managing your SLA responsibilities. The following
table describes the roles that your web application team might consider for managing the operations of
all their web servers. The roles listed map to the “role clusters” from the MOF Team Model, which is
described in the “MOF Executive Overview” document found at www.microsoft.com/technet/
solutionaccelerators/cits/mo/mof/mofeo.mspx.

632

MOF Role Cluster

Role Name

Role Responsibilities

Operations

IIS Admin

Routine maintenance, audit, lockdown, enable extensions,
and aid in the deployment of new Web applications as per
the organization’s policies.
Ensure that the web server is maintained in a state so that it
can satisfy all SLA requirements.
Participate in monitoring and audit processes.

97823c18.qxd:WroxPro

2/4/08

7:53 PM

Page 633

Chapter 18: IIS and Operations Management
MOF Role Cluster

Role Name

Role Responsibilities

Security

IIS Security
Admin

Implement Active Directory policies.
Lead security audit.
Ensure IIS security by implementing best practices.

Operations

IIS Application
Admin

Administer applications and web sites (does not have
rights to all IIS, only to particular web sites).
Configure resources for web sites.
Participate in monitoring and audit processes and take
care of all security concerns raised by the application.

Infrastructure

IIS Deployment
Admin

Deploy the web servers.
Ensure that service packs and patches are current and that
configuration settings conform with organization rules.
Ensure that the web servers have antivirus protection.

Support

IIS Incident
Admin

Implement incident response for incidents.
Provide web server incident management policy.
Isolate and resolve problems and issues from incidents and
propagate requests for changes.
Interface with partners if there are issues regarding hardware or technology they have provided and maintain a
support loop with them.

Additional roles can be added to support application-specific needs, such as publishing files or making
changes to the config files. IIS 7.0 makes it easy to delegate tasks to application owners and infrastructure
engineers alike. Application roles usually require fewer privileges and should not interfere with any of the
organization roles. They also need to be restricted to the application or applications in scope for the personnel and have boundaries to block access to areas outside their charge. For this purpose, IIS 7.0 provides
highly granular access to resources through adaptation of Group Policy Objects (GPO), inheritance of permissions on folders, and integration with the Windows Server security mechanisms. Delegating rights for
the IIS server, web sites, and application pools is covered in detail in Chapter 9, “Delegating Remote
Administration.”
One context in which roles are important is when a change to an IIS platform has to be deployed. Some
changes, such as new versions of IIS applications, can present high levels of risk for downtime should
the change have unknown and undesired consequences upon deployment. The next SMF we look at is
Change Management.

Change Management
Like many of the SMFs, huge tomes have been written on the subject of change management — both by
Microsoft and by other venerable institutions. If you don’t have a mature change management process,
then you should develop a system to support both your web-site development processes and the ongoing operations that keep your production site going. If you have a change management process already
and it hasn’t been crafted specifically for web solutions, review it for appropriateness for web-site applications and servers.

633

97823c18.qxd:WroxPro

2/4/08

7:53 PM

Page 634

Part 4: Part IV: Managing and Operating IIS 7.0
A good change management system provides a disciplined process for introducing changes into the
web- server environment and maintains minimal disruption to ongoing operations when the change is
introduced. Keeping your servers up while they undergo software or hardware upgrades, for example,
can best be done when you have a realistic plan. To achieve this goal, a change management process
includes the following objectives:


Formalize the process of initiating change through the submission of a request for change (RFC)
and a change approval board (CAB).



Assign a priority and a category to the change, and appraise urgency and impact on tertiary
services, the infrastructure, and end-users.



Plan the deployment of the change. Be careful to include “go no-go” checkpoints where the
change deployment progress can be verified or delayed depending on the new levels of risk that
you may uncover as the change plan matures.



Work with the Release Management SMF, which manages the release and deployment of changes
into the production environment. For more information about the Release Management SMF, see
www.microsoft.com/technet/solutionaccelerators/cits/mo/smf/default.mspx.



Conduct a post-implementation review of whether the change has achieved the goals that were
established for it and determine whether to keep the change or roll it back.

The MOF Change Management SMF extends these objectives into specific tasks, and it’s worthwhile to
view those and incorporate the relevant tasks into your IIS operations program. An important principle
of how the SMF sets up and relates change managements tasks is that you don’t take anything for
granted. Be sure you have all the relevant people reviewing the change and the deployment plan, and be
sure everyone involved understands and agrees on what to expect after the change is implemented.
To that end, the following table lays out how you may wish to involve team members in change management decisions. The first column calls out the different teams that can be involved in IIS operations as
defined by the MOF Team Model. The remaining columns indicate whether the team should be involved
based on the severity (that is, scope, risk, impact) of the change.
MOF Role Cluster

634

Change Type

Change Type

Change Type

Change Type

Minor Change

Standard
Change

Significant and
Major Change

Emergency
Change

Infrastructure

Not involved

Preauthorized

CAB member

CAB member

Operations

Not involved

Preauthorized

CAB member

CAB member

Partner

Not involved

Preauthorized

CAB member

CAB member

Release

Authorizer

Authorizer

CAB member

CAB member

Security

Not involved

Preauthorized

CAB member

CAB member

Support

Not involved

Preauthorized

CAB member

CAB member

Service

Not involved

Preauthorized

CAB member

CAB member