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From the external sources of information as secondary data, In the Corporation, FPT Retail is still the growth-leading company in profit before tax and revenue (2) .FPT Retail is now calling for big investors to invest into this area of retail. With t...

From the external sources of information as secondary data, In the Corporation, FPT Retail is still the growth-leading company in profit before tax and revenue (2) .FPT Retail is now calling for big investors to invest into this area of retail. With t...

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Conducting these initial interviews with all group members listed above; there are
different features for each group. The key reason for choosing these people to interview
is that, various perceptions and perspectives have been marked and collected. With the
first group, they are all currently working at FPT Retail JSC but different department and
level from staff to shop manager and training manager. The second group is exemployees at FPT retail, who used to engage with company and left for different reasons,
they understood what was going on inside the company. The final group is various kinds
of customer with different aspects and gives out different viewpoints with their real
Most of people in the first and second group all emphasized that there was a high
turnover rate recently which create crucial impact to company productivity, customer
satisfaction and affect product returns.
“The average working time of 1 salesman in FPT Shop is only from 4-6 months.
Overall, the rate of turnover in 2015 is high (around 50%)’’ sayings from Ms. Le Thi
Ngoc Hoa. Alongside with the same perspectives, Mr. Huynh Quang Long shared FPT
Retail JSC was facing the fact that huge number of key persons left FPT with different
reasons. From the view point of Ms. Le Thi Bich Ngoc, salesmen came to work without
energy, they did not want to work which could lead to lower productivity of Shop, they
did not want to work anymore. With high turnover and turnover intention, a number of
new and inexperienced salesman has been recruited, a new salesman surely don’t know
how to sell products, which can lose customers and lower productivity. Moreover,
product returns can be increased due to new less experienced salesman “this happened for

many reasons, but one of them come from new salesman’ consultancy related to
knowledge” confirmed by Ms. Le Thi Ngoc Hoa.
Behind the symptoms of high turnover rate and alarming consequences, there are a
wide range of causes. Employee satisfaction is the core element that heighten turnover
rate up. Employee are not happy and satisfied due to a plenty of reasons listed like lack of
promotion opportunity, ineffective supervision, poor pay and benefit, lack of motivation,
competition between co-workers, stress and pressure, lack of motivation or burnout.
Ms. Le Thi Ngoc Hoa stated that regarding sales force, due to selling policy in
FPT with low base salary and quite attractive incentives, it can stimulate selling
productivity but tough competition between salesmen happened which has led to stress or
unfair competition between co-workers. With some other salesman cannot sell products
well will be very much under high competitive pressure and quit the job.
Sharing the same perspectives, Ms. Le Thi Bich Ngoc confirmed that she and her
staff had to work overtime like road show, leaflets sending…very often and without any
extra payment from company. After work, she had other things to do at home as well. As
far as she’s concerned, there is no satisfaction regarding pay and benefit. From the
sayings of Ms. Le Thi Bich Ngoc who is currently Shop Manager of FPT, she confirmed
that she can see the current situation of increasing turnover rate, some salesmen are not
happy to come to work and feel like energy loss status, then they quit the job. And she
also shares the same view points with others that there is a high rate of turnover in FPT
Shop which can impact on company productivity. On the other hand, when being asked
about current status of FPT retail, Mr. Huynh Quang Long – Head of Training

Department of FPT Retail showed his opinion that what he can observe recently is higher
turnover of salesman especially key persons such as ASM, SM leave company and move
to another similar company called Vingroup. Because of the market competition, FPT
shop is trying to build the best image to be more attractive. FPT Shop push stronger and
higher target for each shop, which make sales person here stressed. From the opinion of
Ms. Nguyen Ngoc Thanh Hieu “there is a high and tough competition among salesmen
which makes me really stressed”
During the time doing the interviews with the first group and the second group,
they mentioned that the employee satisfaction greatly cause high turnover rate which
indirectly lead to customer dissatisfaction. That is the reason why the third group of 2
customers is also involved to be interviewed to explore problem further. The result after
interviewing two customers are regarded as similar
To sum up, initial cause and effect map has been showed as below


Nature of

between coworkers


Failure to reach

Lack of


High turnover
Strict selling


Lack of


New and less


Low employee



Poor pay
and benefit

Low job performance


Figure 4: Initial cause and effect map

The success of one company doesn’t only mean this company makes money or
not, that’s how they make their employees drive passion and desire towards their current
job. As well, effective supervision is considered as very important element from the
prospective of maintaining and retaining appropriate employees. For a company, greater
level of job satisfaction can result in greater level of job performance and meaningfully
reduces turnover rate.
1.3 Problem Justification
1.3.1 Potential central problem
As being showed in Figure 4 initial cause and effect map, a plenty of
consequences have been found out from various source of data which are high turnover
and turnover intention, low level of job performance, customer dissatisfaction, product
return increase. These organization outcomes have been led by many issues, one direct
problem of them is low employee satisfaction. In addition to that, whereas, the factor of
low employee satisfaction is contributed by a wide range of issues collected from
interviews and other secondary data as well. Among all, in terms of factor nature of work,
high sales target, competition between co-workers, poor pay and benefit, in the current
situation of the company that FPT Retail JSC have to build up their images and make
effort to attract big investors, so if one of them has been chosen as central problem, it
cannot be changed or improved. Regarding the promotion opportunity and factor of
motivation, not so many people find them the main problems that impact on organization
outcomes . Moreover, if job stress or burnout are selected as the central problem, it will

take too much time and effort, resources to solve which is impossible in the limited scope
of work.
More importantly, when being interviewed, people mostly mentioned the problem
of ineffective supervision which is the most influential factor to consequences which is
regarded as a solvable central problem in this context. Most of interviewees mentioned
and emphasized problem of supervision, they are not satisfied with their supervisor;
leavers also decided to leave company due to their supervisor’s behaviors and the way
they supervised.
Mr. Ly Quoc Tien – one of the interviewee joining the initial interview shared that
he left FPT because of his supervisors, he believed that they were really selfish and
thought for their benefit only, he and his supervisor did not have a good relationship, they
did not listen and accept constructive opinions from him. Agreed with Mr. Ly Quoc Tien,
Mr. Vu Thanh Tung who was also an interviewee in the first interview shared that, there
was a plenty of reasons that made him leave company, but among all of them, problem of
supervision is the key cause to this issue. From his perspective, employees did not leave
their company, they left their supervisors or managers. From perspective of Ms. Le Thi
Ngoc Hoa, she had 2 managers . She was not happy with the way her managers
supervised, they did not understand staff’s feelings and she didn’t receive any good
support from her managers.
To conclude, after collecting information and analyzing all the factors, problem of
ineffective supervision is highly considered as root cause or central problem that needs to
be tackled in the scope of this thesis.

Definition of ineffective supervision
According to Morgan, Michael M(3),supervision seems to involve a structured
relationship between a supervisor and supervisee with the goal to help the supervisee gain
the attitudes, skills, and knowledge needed; but simply to point out that for many people;
supervision is concerned with a variety of objectives. Pell, Arthur R


showed that a

good supervisor knows the strengths and limitations of each team member. In planning
how to present information to the team it is important to keep this in mind. By building
this knowledge into the approach used, the supervisor can tailor the manner in which the
instructions will be given to what is best for the person involved. Watkins(5) suggested
that ineffective supervisors are intolerant, non-empathic, discouraging, defensive, and
uninterested in training or consultation to improve their supervisory skills. “Any sales
supervisors are ineffective because they don't know how to be managers” said
McSparran, Kent(6)
1.3.2Justify the existence of problem
This section aims to validate whether ineffective supervision is a real central
problem in FPT Digital Retail JSC.
There is a variety of theories that gives out the dimensions of ineffective
supervision. Various dimensions of ineffective supervision have been discussed in lots of
research previously. McSparran, Kent(7) stated many sales supervisors are ineffective
because they don't know how to be managers. These fellows generally fall into two
groups. The first type of ineffective supervisors are the worker-bees who feel guilty and
unproductive if they are not moving cases, hanging signs or making emergency

deliveries. Though wonderful employees, these guys make poor supervisors because they
fail to recognize that they can accomplish more by increasing the output of eight
subordinates than they can by their own hard work. The second type of ineffective
supervisors are those with the "I've-paid-my-dues" attitude. These people interpret a
promotion to management as meaning that they have done their time on the streets and
have earned the right to coast for a while. Situated on the easy side of the inverted
accountability equation, these supervisors fail to see that their paycheck is justified only
by the effect they have on the productivity of their crew. According to Nicholas Ladany1,
Yoko Mori2, and Kristin E. Mehr3(8), the effective and ineffective supervisions were
differentiated based on the supervisory working alliance, supervisor style, supervisor selfdisclosure, supervisee nondisclosure and supervisee evaluation using supervisee
evaluation of supervisor form, working alliance inventory/supervision-short form,
supervisory styles inventory, supervisor self-disclosure index, trainee disclosure scale,
evaluation process within supervision inventory.
Besides that, semi-structured interviews with closed-ended questionnaires were
designed to collect data. Details and content of questionnaire will be displayed in section
4.1 chapter IV based on characteristics of ineffective supervision that are supervisory
working alliance, supervisory style, supervisor self-disclosure, supervisee nondisclosure
and supervisor evaluation.
Three respondents out of eight people in the first interview attended the interview
to help validate the existence of ineffective supervision at company. Having deeper talks
with Mr. Ly Quoc Tien, he stated that he was not satisfied with his supervisor’s skills and

techniques or behaviors which couldn’t help him grow up. He learned by himself. There
was no agreement on the goals of supervision between his supervisor and he. Supervisor
asked and assigned to him, and he just followed. About the emotional bond between
supervisor and he, his manager also created high pressure on him, everything was
imposed by his managers.
Result of this justification process illustrated that ineffective supervision does exist
in this organization which had been supported by both theories and data.
1.3.3 Justify the importance of problem
As validated above, the problem of ineffective supervision really exists in FPT
Digital Retail JSC, this section aims to justify whether and how this central problem
important to make big impacts to organization outcomes by determining the cause-effect
relationship of ineffective supervision to employee satisfaction, turnover rate, and job
performance directly or indirectly.
Definition of employee satisfaction, turnover and job performance
Ambreen, Uzma(9) stated that employee satisfaction is the terminology used to
describe whether employees are happy and contented and fulfilling their desires and
needs at work or not. Employee satisfaction is a factor in employee motivation, employee
goal achievement and positive employee morale in the workplace. According to Saif-udDin*, Khair-uz-Zaman** & Allah Nawaz,(10) job satisfaction of academicians is well
documented across the literature where certain leading factors of satisfaction have been
researched over and over indicating that work, pay, supervision, promotion, co workers
and environment collectively determines the total satisfaction of a worker/officer.

The term “turnover” is defined by Price


as: the ratio of the number of

organizational members who have left during the period being considered divided by the
average number of people in that organization during the period. Chou, Rita Jing-Ann
Author Information(12) stated the fact that when turnover is high, there are not enough
workers to perform tasks, causing a situation that affects quality of outcomes.
Furthermore, high turnover also creates a constant inflow of new workers, who tend to be
less experienced.
Yang, Cheng-Liang; Hwang, Mark(13) stated that job performance measures an
individual against his or her goal, with an emphasis on whether outcomes match the
expected goal or is how an employee performs his or her tasks using time, techniques and
interactions with others
Ineffective supervision to employee satisfaction as a direct impact by theory
Thacker, Rebecca A(14)showed significant, positive correlations for satisfaction
with quality of supervision, and with company/agency as an employer, which means an
ineffective way of supervision and results in low employee satisfaction.
Employee satisfaction and turnover rate, job performance by theory
According to Becker and Huselid(16), when discuss about the potential impact of
job satisfaction, it is said that job satisfaction is seen as a potential route to high
performance. Yang, Cheng-Liang; Hwang, Mark(13)showed that if job satisfaction
influences job performance, then attention should be given to factors that contribute to
high job satisfaction, which, if present, can then lead to high job performance