Tải bản đầy đủ
4.6 Challenges Adopting the Chinese Development model to Ethiopian Situation

4.6 Challenges Adopting the Chinese Development model to Ethiopian Situation

Tải bản đầy đủ

The China model is also contributing to the power and dominant status of the ruling party in
Ethiopia with the impact on the political space of the country, i.e., if the party become
unchallenged it may not worry to respond to public interests quickly with the possibility of
threatening the democratic competition and multi-party system. This is because of the EPRDF’s
gaining of some political experiences from the Chinese authoritarian party and government40.
The fusion of government and party without clear boundary resulting in tight administrative
control and politicization of different sectors including the military are some of the dangers of
the China model which are not advisable to Ethiopia41. The lack of public participation in the
political system is another challenge of the China model by which Ethiopia can incur negative
lessons from China42.
In sum, the Chinese development model can have both the positive and negative lessons but, the
task of selectively learning experiences which can match to the foot of the learner is the key
mechanism to achieve success. The lesson drawing from the Chinese development model could
be effective if the Ethiopian Government neutrally tries to absorb lessons which are compatible
to the country’s domestic contexts. However, if the use of Chinese experiences for the political
purpose continues the challenges of the Chinese development model to Ethiopia overrides the


Interview with Fantu Cheru,ibid
Interview with Tiruneh Gamta, ibid
Interview with Wasihun,ibid


The post-1991 Ethio-China partnership is underpinned by economic and political factors. In
addition to material and financial supports, the demand for policy or the non-material supports
namely, gaining valuable experiences from China are among the motives for Ethiopia’s
cooperation with China. This study reveals that the post -1991- Ethio-China partnership is one of
the strong relations in Africa despite the fact that Ethiopia is not as such a source of abundant
natural resources that China needs. China comes to Africa to access the market and benefits from
investment opportunities along with cheap labor. Moreover, the political motive expressed in
terms of China’s need for the diplomatic relevance of Ethiopia to deal with African countries and
Ethiopian Government and the ruling party’s aspiration to learn from the Chinese political
experiences also play a significant role for the development of the Ethio-China partnership.
Although, in reality the Ethiopian Government is engaged in implicitly drawing political lessons
and reforms from China, it declares China cannot be a role model in the political sphere to
Ethiopia. This is due to the government’s emphasis on some cognitive factors in its lesson
drawing from the Chinese development model. However, it is important to consider the rational
theory of learning by taking other factors into account. Therefore, if the lesson–drawing from
China is applied by giving equal weight to the bounded and rational methods of learning, the
Chinese development model could help Ethiopia to draw lessons from its success story only in
the economic sphere not in the political ones, because the internal context of the country does not
allow the application of political lesson from China as a democratic government should not learn
from authoritarian one. Regardless of the ruling party and government elite’s admiration of the
China model, it cannot be simply copied. Rather, there are different factors that determine the
applicability of the Chinese development model to Ethiopia. Nevertheless, the Ethiopian
Government’s use of China as sources of policy lessons and experiences in political aspect
remained unquestioned as far as the government backed it with economic growth and optimistic
poverty reduction results. However, the relevance of the Chinese development model to Ethiopia
will cease if the Ethiopian Government fails to achieve the economic growth to convince the
public like China did and the demise will rise especially, if the learning of political lessons from

China is continued and used for political purposes, since the domestic political landscape of
Ethiopia does not allow this. Contrary to the contribution of China model to the power of the
ruling party to become a kind of electoral authoritarian government with the use of Chinese
censorship software and dissent control system, it has also added value to the fastest economic
growth the Ethiopia has achieved using the role of state.
The findings of this study imply that since following other countries as a model is not sufficient
in itself, it should be substantiated with strong commitment to transform the lessons learned to
practice. The success of the Ethiopian Government‘s lesson drawing from China model depends
on the effectiveness of the government. Therefore, the government needs to enhance its effort to
take advantage of its late developer status with lots of potential to achieve success in the
economic sphere in shorter period than its forerunner China.
In learning from the Chinese development trajectory, Ethiopia should never try to apply all
experiences, which led to success in China, because Ethiopia and China are different countries.
Therefore, Ethiopian Government should first pinpoint the lessons which could be contextualized
to the country's domestic environment. Second, it is also important to avoid the negative lessons
of China model such as political rigidity, inequality between rural and urban(specially
economic), as well as the forced control of rural –urban migration, which contributed to the
remarkable disparity and which is anti-freedom of movement . However, unless the government
benevolently draws the lessons which can match with the local context, the interest -driven
policy making could dominate the policy making landscape of the country and policy
dependence could be a danger for Ethiopia making it policy dependent on China.
The findings of this study also imply that unless the Ethiopian Government handles the issue of
learning political lessons from China, it is difficult to achieve fully fledged development and the
government’s power could be challenged as the politics of the country may fail to satisfy the
people. To solve this problem, the rational theory of lesson drawing should be emphasized along
with bounded theory to draw lessons which the local context of the country allows with the
alternative of diversifying countries from which lessons can be drawn as a possible lesson that
can be learned from the Chinese development model.


African Technopolitan, (2015), Africa's Last Best Chance for Development . A Magazine of the
the Africa Center for Technology Studies (ACTS) , 1-140.
Alemayehu Geda, (2008), Scoping Study on the Chinese Relation with Sub Saharan Africa: The
Case of Ethiopia. AERC Scoping Study Addis Ababa University.(AG@ethionet.et or
Alemayehu Geda and Atnafu G. meskel, (2009), Impact of China-Africa Investment: Case Study
of Ethiopia. IAES Working Paper , 1-40.
Alessia Amighini and Axel Berkofsky, (2015), Xi’s Policy Gambles:The Bumpy Road Ahead.
Millano: Edizioni Epoké.
Anshan Li, (2009), Chinese experiences in development: Implications for Africa. Pambazuka
News Publication , 1-6.
Arkebe Oqubay, (2015), Made in Africa : Industrial Policy in Ethiopia. London: Oxford
University Press.
Askouri Ali, (2007), ‘African Perspectives on China in Africa’. In African Perspectives on
China in Africa, edited by Stephen Marks. Oxford: Pambazuka.









Commonwealth & Comparative Politics, 44:1 , 137-150.
Beverley Hancock,Elizabeth Ockleford and Kate Windridge. (2009). An introduction to
qualitative research. The NIHR Research Design Service for Yorkshire & the Humber ,
Bellù Lorenzo G. (2011), Development and Development Paradigms A (Reasoned) Review of
Prevailing Visions. EASY pol Resources for policy making ; UN FAO ,
Bilal San,(2012), The Rise of South-South relations:Development partnerships
European Centre for Development Policy Management (ECDPM) ,


Callick Rowan, (2007), ‘The Chinese Model’: The American, November/December. At


model [Accessed October 26, 2009]
Chinese MoFA, (2007), White Paper on China’s African Policy,January 2006. Los
Angeles/London/New Delhi/Singapore: SAGE Publications.

Daniel Maman and Zeev Rosenhek ,(2011), The Institutional dynamics of a Developmental
State: Changes and Continuty in State -Economy Relations in Israel. The Open
University of Israel Research Institutefor Policy , Poliical Economyand Society working
paper no_5, 1-38.
David Benson and Andrew Jordan,(2011),What Have We Learned from Policy


Research? Dolowitz and Marsh Revisited. Political studies review: vol 9 , 366-378.
Davies Martyn, (2010), How China is Influencing Africa’s Development. Background Paper for
the Perspectives on Global Development 2010: Shifting Wealth. Paris: OECD
Development Centre.
Dawit Alemu, Seth Cook ,and Qi Gubo, (2015), Chinese Agricutural expertise Support in
Ethiopia : Approaches , Motives annd Perspectives . China and Brazil in African
Agriculture Working Paper Series , 1-16
Dawit Tadesse Tiruneh, (2014), an Analysis of Chinese FDI in Sub- Saharan Africa, with a
Particular Focus on Ethiopia.Pdf (1-50). Presented at the 14th EADI General Conference.
Deborah Bräutigam and Xiaoyang Tang, (2012), An Overview of Chinese Agricultural


Rural Engagement in Ethiopia. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
Development Strategy and Governance Division FPRI Discussion Paper 01185 , 1-18.
EIC, (2017), summary of Chinese Investment Companies in Ethiopia by sector , region and
year from 1998-March, 2017. Database list of Chinese copanies investing in Ethiopia , 13.
Ethiopian Economics Association/Ethiopian Economic Policy Research Institute (EEA/EEPRI),
(2009), A Survey of the Economic and Trade Relationships between China, India and
Ethiopia. Final Report. (1-55). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
EMOFA, (2010),Ethio-China cultural relations. report of Ethiopian Ministry of

foreign affairs

Ethiopian Ministry of Trade, (2017), Top twenty countries recieving Ethiopia's Export. China's
Share in receiving Ethiopia's export , 1-5.
Fantahun H.michael, (2013), Africa–china relations: neocolonialism or strategic partnership?
Ethiopia as a case analysis. PHD thesis Atlantic International

University , 1-126.

Fantu Cheru and Cyril Obi, (2011), De-coding China-Africa Relations:Partnership for
development or ‘(neo) colonialism by invitation’? World Financial Review , 72-75.
Feng Zhongping and Huang Jing, (2014), China's Strategic Partnership diplomacy: Engaging
with a chaning world. European Strategic Partnerships



Paper 8 , 1-19.
Fourie Elsje, (2011), Ethiopia and the Search for Alternative Exemplars of Development. Africa
and International Studies Working Group Presented in Panel 6.12: 'An Emerging PostWashington Consensus? , 1-28.
________ (2012), New Maps for Africa Contextualising the ‘Chinese Model’ within Ethiopian
and Kenyan Paradigms of Development. PhD Dissertation school of International
Studies University of Trento, Italy , 1-396.
________ (2013), Does the 'Chinese Model' Undermine the Influence of The Eu's Ap proach to
Development? The Case of Kenya. Paper delivered at the EU and Emerging Powers
conference (Brussels , 1-20
_______ (2015), China's example for Meles' Ethiopia: when development ‘models’ land. The
Journal of Modern African Studies ,53 , 289-316.
________ (2017), The Intersection of East-Asian and African Modernities: Towards a New
Research Agenda. Social Imaginaries 3.1 , 119-146.
Francis Fukuyama and Hilary Matfess, (2016), The March Is Not Linear: Big Party Politics and
the Decline of Democracy Worldwide. In H. M. Miklaucic, Beyon Convergence: World
Without Order (pp. 21-397). Washington, D.C: Center for Complex Operations.
Frieden Jeffry A. ,(2009),The crisis and beyond: Prospects for international economic
cooperation. Politics , Economics and GlobalGovernance: The European Dimensions,
Friedman Edward, (2008), How Economic Superpower China Could Transform Africa. Journal
of Chinese Political Science/Association for Chinese Politcal Science , 1- 20.


Garth Shelton and Farhana Paruk, (2008), The Forum on China -Africa Cooperation: A Strategic
Opportunity. Monograph 156, Institute for Security Studies , 1-222.
Gasiorowski Mark J. ,(2000), Democracy and marcoeconomic performance in Underdeveloped
countries :An emperical analysis. Comparative political studies, Vol. 33 No. 3 , 319-349.
Gaye Adama, (2008.), ‘China in Africa: After the Gun and the Bible...A West African
Perspective’, In China Returns to Africa, edited by Chris Alden et al, New York, NY:
Columbia University Press.


(2016), Ethio-China

Economic Relations:

Nature of China’s

Foreign Direct Investment in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa University, MA Thesis in
Interational Relations , 1-66.
Gedion G. Jalata, (2009), Ethiopia and China Political and Economic Relations:Challenges and
prospects after 1991. Afroloy , 1-16.
_____________, (2014), Development Assistance from the South: Comparative Analysis
Chinese and Indian to Ethiopia. Macroeconomic Policy Division, The United Nations








gediongam@yahoo.com , 1-39
_________, (2015), An African Developmental State :Ethiopia's Emergent Experience Regional
Conference on Building Democratic Developmental States For Economic Transformation
In Southern Africa , 1-34.
Gereffi Gary, (2009), Development Models and Industrial Upgrading in China and Mexico.
European Sociological Review Volume 25 Number1, 37-51.
Gilardi Covadonga Meseguer & Fabrizio, (2009), What is new in the study of policy diffusion?
Review of International Political Economy, 16:3 , 527-543.
Glans Nazgol,(2014),Chinese OFDI and Private Companies in Ethiopia Industrialization and
Employment Opportunities. Lund University :Graduate School,Master of Science in
Global Studies Department of Political Science , 1-63


Hackenesch Chiristine,(2011),Competing for Development? The European Union And China In
Ethiopia. Center for Chinese Studies , 1-31.
__________ ,(2011), European good Governance Meet China Africa :Insights from Angola and
Ethiopia. German Development Institute, 1-45.
Halper Stefan, (2010), the Beijing Consensus. New York: Basic Books.
Harriss Jhon ,(2013), Development Theories. International Development Research Center , 1-42.
Harvey David, (2005), A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York : Oxford University Press.
Henning Melbr, (2008), China in Africa :A new partner or or another imperialist Power?
Hunburg: GIGA institute Africa Affiars .
Jean-pierre Cabestan and N. Jayaram. (2012), China and Ethiopia: Authoritarian affinities and
economic cooperation. French Centre for Research on Contemporary China , 53-62.
Juma Calestous, (2007), “Lessons Africans Must Learn from Chinese Expansion,” Business
Daily, July 13 http:// www. ksg.harvard.edu/ ksgnews/Features/opeds/ 0713 07jua .htm
Kan Shirley A. ,(2011), China/Taiwan: Evolution of the “One China” Policy—Key

from Washington, Beijing, and Taipei. Congressional Research

Service(CRS) Report for Congress : Prepared for Members and Committees of
Congress , 1-81.
Kapil Kapoor and Carlos Mollinedo, (2016), Chinese Special Economic Zones: Lessons for
Africa . African Development Bank Group ,Chief Economist Complex African Economic
Brief Volume 7 Issue 6 , 1-16.
Kennedy Scott,( 2010), 'The Myth of the Beijing Consensus'. Journal of Contemporary China
Kohsaka Akira, (2004), New Development Strategies: Beyond the Washington Consensus. New
York: palgrave Macmillan.
Kuznets Paul W. (1988),’an East Asian Model of Economic Development: Japan, Taiwan, and
South Korea.' Economic Development and Cultural Change 36(3), pp. S11-S43.

Larry Hanauer and LyleJ.Morris, (2014), chinese engagement in africa: drivers ,reactions and
implications for US policy. RAND National Security Research Division, 1-173.
Lave Charles A. and James G. March, (1993), An Introduction to Models in the Social Sciences.
Lanham, MD: University Press of America
Legeune Johannes, (2015), Ruling Parties as Communities of Practice and Collective Identity in
China Ethiopia - Relations . Africa's Asian Options , Working Paper no_1 , 1-15.
Li He, (2015), The Chinese Model of Development and Its Implications. World Journal of Social
Science Research , 1-138.
Marcus Power and Giles Mohan, (2010), towards a critical geopolitics of China's engagement in
African development. Geopolitics and development UK, 1-33.
Martyn Davies , Hannah Edinger, Nastasya Tay & Sanusha Naidu, (2008), How China delivers
development assistance to Africa. A research undertaking by the Centre



Studies, prepared for the Department for International , 1-69.
Melaku Mulualem, (2014), Striding Towards Better Relations (Ethio-China Relations).Ethiopian
International Institute for Peace and Development (EIIPD). melakumulu@yahoo.com
Meseguer Covadonga, (2005), ‘Policy Learning, Policy Diffusion, and the Making of a


Order’. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 598, pp. 67–82
Müller Felix, (2015), Model transfer in the making: changing development strategies of, and
expectations towards, the state in Ethiopia and Ghana. Working Papers of the Priority
Programme 1448 of the German Research Foundation , 1-20.
Muna Abdulkhalef, (2015), Ethio-China ties, 45 years and growing ever strong. Addis


Nathan Andrew. J. ,(2015), China’s Challenge. Journal of Democracy, Volume 26, Number 1,
Johns Hopkins University Press , 156-170.
Ngwa Nkwah Akongini, (2015), The Comparative Impact Analysis of Chinese and Turkish
Development Assistance to Ethiopia from a South-South Cooperation Perspective.
Paper prepared for the EY International Congress on Economics II , 1-27.
Obiorah Ndubisi, (2007), “Who's Afraid of China in Africa?” In African Perspectives on China
in Africa, edited by Stephen Marks. Oxford: Pambazuka.


Pan Wei, (2007), The Chinese Model of Development . A Panel Presented at Foreign Policy
Center, London , 1-12.
Park Albert, (2008), Agricultural Development in China: Lessons for Ethiopia. Briefing note
prepared for the DFID funded study, Department of Economics, University of Oxford , 15.
Peerenboom Randall, (2007), China Modernizes: Threat to the West or Model for the Rest?
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Peter Meyns and Charity Musamba, (eds.)(2010), The Developmental State in Africa:Problems
and Prospects. Duisburg: University of Duisburg‐Essen.
Radice Hugo, (2008), The Developmental State under Global Neoliberalism. Third World
Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 6 , 1153-1174.
Ramo Joshua, (2004), the Beijing Consensus, London: Foreign Policy Centre.
At http://fpc.org.uk/publications/ The Beijing Consensus [Accessed October 12, 2009].
Ravallion Martin,(2008), Are There Lessons for Africa from China’s Success againstPoverty?
Policy Research Working Paper. Washington, DC: The World Bank


Research Group.
Renard M.ary Francoise, (2011), China’s Trade and FDI in Africa. African development Bank
group, 1 -38.
Richard peet and Elaine Hartwick,(2009), Theories of development : Contentions , Arguments
and Alternatives (2nd edition). New York: Guilford Press Publications, inc.
Ricz Judit, (2014), Developmental state in Brazil: past, present and future. Institute of
Economics,Centre for Economic and Regional Studies of the Hungarian


Sciences , 1-20.
Rocha Hector, (2013), Dominant Development Paradigms : A Review and Integration.
Journal of Markets & Morality Volume 16, Number 1 , 7-24.



Romain Dittgen & Abel Abate Demissie, (2015), Own Ways of Doing : National Pride, Power
and China’s Political Calculus in Ethiopia. Occassional Paper of South African Institute
of International Affairs (SAIIA) , 1-32.
Rose Richard, (1991),'What Is Lesson-Drawing?' Journal of Public Policy 11(1), pp. 3-30
Ross Garnuat, Cai Fang and Ligang Song, (2013), China's New Strategy for Long –term Growth
and Development: Imperatives and Implications. Australian National


Roy Sumit, (2014), China and India, “Rising Powers” and African development: and
opportunities. Occasional Paper, Delivered at the Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala,
Sweden PDF (1-34).www.nai.uu.se
Runge Maxwell, (2016), Two African countries, two strategic Chinese aid packages, two
different outcomes. Leiden University Faculty of Humanities MA Chinese Studies ,
Sautman Barry and Yan Hairong,( 2007), 'Friends and Interests: China’s Distinctive


with Africa.' African Studies Review 50(3), pp. 75-114.
Schiere Richard,(2011), China and Africa: An Emerging Partnership for Development? – An
overview of issues. An overview of issues, Series N° 125, African Development Bank,
Tunis, Tunisia. , 1-21.










optimism.Cambridge University Press , 1-158.
_________, (2012), Imperial Ethiopia’s relations with Maoist China. Binghamton University.
Sen Amartya, (1988), The concept of developmnet. Chapter one in Handbook of Development
Economics, Volume L , 1-26.
Shelton Garth and Farhana Paruk,(2008), The Forum on China-Africa Cooperation: A Strategic
Opportunity. ISS Monograph Series No. 156 (December), Pretoria: Institute for Strategic
Shinn David H. ,(2014), Ethiopia and China: When Two Former Empires Connected.
longform International Policy Digest , 1-15.