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9 Major Findings from Students’ Focus Group Discussion

9 Major Findings from Students’ Focus Group Discussion

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over text books and the overall music curriculum should be revised so that it would be appropriate for
all grade levels.
Ministry of Education and Regional educational sectors have to strive more, in giving better awareness
about the significance of music education for society, in particular for school administrators.
Professionals in the field have to be invited in order to have a better curriculum, syllabus and text book
organization.
Data from Text Books’ Content Evaluation (Grade 1-4)
In this sub topic a review of music education contents are observed in relation to their relevance to the
learners.

The text book is evaluated based on the following criteria
 The Validity of contents
 Contents of the text book
 Significance of contents for the learners
 The scope and depth of contents.
 The applicability of the contents in the text book
 Clarity of the content
 Appropriateness of the text book for the learners
 Integration and continuity of the text book
 Effectiveness of the text book
 Efficiency of the material

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Table: 4.9 Grade one text book

Authors name

No of
No of
No of
text book title Years of No of No of No of
publication units pages educationaleducationalfolk songs directly
songs with songs
copied
notation with out
from
notation
abroad

1.Abebe kasaye

Esthetics

2.Abera mehari

teaching

3.Deberie abdisa

book

1998 E.C

3

120

1

8

4

3

4.Asefa bekele
5.Legesse waqe
6.Seifu bekele
7.Amarech
fekyibelu
Source: Compiled by the researcher, Addis Ababa, 2017

Strength
The strength of the text book is well organized in various contents particularly in its lyric. Moreover,
the text is appropriate to the learners’ mental and age level. Lyrics such as:
 Family members, Domestic animals, parts of our body, HIV, sense organs, road and traffic security,
personal hygiene are some of the most interesting lyrics included in the text book.
Weakness
The book has eight educational lyrics but it lacks melody or musical notations. Teachers are expected
to compose simple melody, which are appropriate for the students. But different teachers may compose

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different melody. This creates non uniformity from one school to the other. Furthermore, if the teacher
is unable to create melody, he/she may skip the songs.
The book has only a single song a lyrics with melody (musical notations) but the length of words in the
lyrics are not seat in a uniform format. In case if the teachers are not trained how to read musical
notation and if musical instruments are not available, it is difficult to implement the curriculum,
teaching songs with musical notation for the students.
The lyrics of the following songs namely ‘AKUKULU”, on page 31 ‘ABEBAYEHUSH”, page 32
‘EMBUSHE GELLA’, page33 ‘CHEREKA DIMBLEBOKA’, page 97 are traditional play songs which
the students will have a chance to sing even before kindergarten level. The contents of the above listed
four songs did not have any educational value. The songs might not have educational contents, but the
students develop social interaction, entertainments, mental and physical relaxation. The lyrics of the
songs might be developed through replacing other relevant educational contents.
On Page 98, the songs entitled ‘Head shoulder, knees and toes’ and ‘Brother John’ were ‘copied’
directly from western song. Have been copied directly from abroad but the second one was rearranged
or adopted demos tic languages, which makes to lose our creativity in the target professional stream.

Table: 4.10 Grade Two Text Book

Authors name

text book
title

1.Abebe kasaye

Aesthetics

2.Abera mehari teaching
3.Deberie abdisa book

Years of No of No of No of
publication units pages educational
songs with
notation

1998 E.C

3

137

4.Asefa bekele
5.Legesse waqe
6.Seifu bekele
7.Amarech
fekyibelu

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5

No of
No of
educational folk
songs
songs
with out
notation

10

5

No of
directly
copied
from
abroad

No of
marriage
songs

1

2

Source: Compiled by the researcher, Addis Ababa, 2017

Strength
Like the previous grade the lyrics are better prepared. It has also continuity of topic, which are further
developed and compatible to the learners’ age level. The following topics can be considered as suitable
for the learners.
 Family members, Domestic animals, parts of our body, HIV, road and traffic security, personal
hygiene, cultural heritages, Environmental and surrounding sanitation. The above topic titles
written in the text book in Amharic language.
Weakness
The book has ten educational lyrics but it lacks melody or musical notations. Teachers are expected to
compose simple melodies, which are appropriate for the students. But different teachers compose
different melodies which create non uniformity from one school to the other. Furthermore, if the
teacher is unable to create melody he/she might skip the songs.
The book has five songs lyrics with melody (musical notations) but the length of words in the lyrics
are not seat in a uniform format. In case if the teachers are not trained how to read musical notation and
if musical instruments are not available, it is difficult to implement the curriculum, teaching songs with
musical notation for the students
The lyrics of the following songs entitled ‘ASIYO BELEMA”, on page 37 and ‘CHEREKA
DIMBLEBOKA’, on page 107 are traditional play songs, which the students could have a chance to
know them even before kindergarten level. But, the students develop social interaction, entertainments,
mental and physical relaxation. Another type of songs which are unnecessary for their educational
purpose includes common marriage songs such as “MUSHERAYE” on page 8 and “NEY BERA NEY
BERA” On page 40. The lyrics of the above listed songs do not have any educational value, i.e. there is
nothing the students would learn from them. They need to be left out from the text book. They might be
considered immoral to the current society’s culture. Even there are songs which are repeated with the
same content from grade one.
On Page 103, the music entitled ‘Brother John’ is directly copied from abroad, which decreases
creativity of the professionals in the field.

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Table: 4.11 Grade Three Text Book

Authors name

text book
title

1.Asefa Bekele

Aesthetics

2.Abera Mehari

teaching

3.Deberie Abdisa

book

Years of No of No of No of
publication units pages educational
songs with
notation

1998 E.C

3

110

2

No of
No of
educational folk
songs
songs
with out
notation

8

4

No of
directly
copied
from
abroad

No of
marriage
songs

1

4.Legesse Waqe
5.Elias Asegahegn
6.Taye Melis
7.Alemayehu
Tadesse

Source: Compiled by the researcher, Addis Ababa, 2017

Strength
Like the previous grade the lyrics are better prepared. It has also continuity of topic, which are further
developed and compatible to the learners’ age level. The following topics can be considered as suitable
for the learners
 Family members, Domestic animals, parts of our body, HIV, road and traffic security, personal
hygiene, cultural heritages, Environmental, surrounding sanitation and water The above topic titles
written in the text book in Amharic language.
Weakness
The book has eight educational lyrics but it lacks melody or musical notations. Teachers are expected
to compose simple melodies, which are appropriate for the students. But different teachers compose
different melodies which create non uniformity from one school to the other. Furthermore, if the
teacher is unable to create melody he/she might skip the songs.

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2

The book has two songs lyrics with melody (musical notations) but the length of words in the lyrics are
not seat in a uniform format. In case if the teachers are not trained how to read musical notation and if
musical instruments are not available, it is difficult to implement the curriculum, teaching songs with
musical notation for the students.
The lyrics of the following songs entitled ‘HOYA HOYE”, on page 29 and ‘ABEBA A YEHOSH’, on
page 29 are traditional play songs, which students could have a chance to know even before
kindergarten level. But, the students might develop social interaction; create entertainments, mental and
physical relaxation. There are also other songs which are totally irrelevant for the students’ academic
performance such as: “HAYLOGA SHEBO AND ANASGEBAM SERGENA” on page 25. The lyrics of
the above listed songs do not have any educational value, i.e. there is nothing that students will learn
from the above songs. They need to be left out from the text since they don’t have any educational
relevance.
There is also a song which is repeated from grade one with the same content and no change in the
melody like “ABEBAYEHOSH”. Page 103, the song entitled ‘Brother John’ is directly copied from
abroad which decreases the proficiency of text book writers. Moreover, the song is too elementary for
the learners’ age level, which is better given at lower grades.
Table: 4.12 Grade Four Text Book

Authors name

text book

title

1.Asefa Bekele

Aesthetics

2.Abera Mehari

teaching

3.D eberie Abdisa

book

Years of No of No of No of
No of
No of
publication units pages educationaleducationalfolk
songs with songs
songs
notation with out
notation
1998 E.C

3

120

1

5

No of
directly
copied
from
abroad

3 any

No of
marriage
songs

two
and

5.Legesse Waqe

1 love

6.Elias Asegahegn

songs

6.Taye Melis
7.Alemayehu
Tadesse

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Source: Compiled by the researcher, Addis Ababa, 2017

Strength
Like the previous grade the lyrics are better prepared. It has also continuity of topics, which are further
developed and compatible to the learners’ age level. The following topics can be considered as suitable
for the learners.
 Family members, Domestic animals, parts of our body, HIV, road and traffic security, personal
hygiene, cultural heritages, Environmental and surrounding sanitation, harmful traditional practices.
The above topic titles written in the text book in Amharic language.
Weakness
The book has three songs lyrics with melody (musical notations) but the length of words in the lyrics
are not seat in a uniform format. In case if the teachers are not trained how to read musical notation and
if musical instruments are not available, it is difficult to implement the curriculum, teaching songs with
musical notation for the students.
The lyrics of the following songs on page 18 entitled ‘HOYA HOYE”, and on page 19 ‘ABEBA
AYEHOSH’, and on page 17 “ASIYO BELEMA” are traditional play songs, which the students could
have a chance to know even before kindergarten level. But, the students develop social interaction,
entertainments, mental and physical relaxation. There are also other songs, which are totally irrelevant
for the learners such as: “YEWEYN ABEBAYE” on page 10, “HAYLOGA SHEBO AND ANASGEBAM
SERGENA” on page 116. Those songs are totally irrelevant for the learners academic development,
which are better left out from the text.
There is also a song which is repeated from grade one with the same content and no change in melody
such as: “ABEBAYEHOSH” and “ASIYO BELEMA” and also ‘’HOYA HOYE’’ from grade two.

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4. 11 Major Findings of the Text Book Evaluation (Grade 1-4)
The text books have continuity in their contents. Content developments is done in all grade levels,
particularly in lyrics. For example the information given in HIV AIDS, traffic laws, personal hygiene,
Environmental sanitation, cultural heritage, harmful traditional practices, and living with family
members are some of the topics which help the learners to acquire sufficient knowledge about different
issues.
On the other hand the text books have their own draw backs, contents are not integrated, and various
subject matters should be included in the contents. It only focuses on certain subjects like
environmental science, and Civic and Ethical Education. But the text books ignore other disciplines
like Mathematics, English and Amharic. Other concept such as patriotism feeling and personality
building issues are neglected.
To make the Aesthetics books appropriate in terms of contents, the writers of the books should consider
relevant issue like, integrating different subjects, and including other variables which helps them to
develop their personal skills. The book has to be revised in collaboration with music education
professionals and other experts from educational sectors. The educational songs compositions should
be related with Ethiopian tunes, which are simply rehearsed by the learners. CDs and cassettes should
be included with the book together, so that teachers can easily practice the songs. This would also help
those teachers who do not have enough knowledge to read and use the notation system and how to
compose the melody. Even teachers who do not have the access to get musical instruments would able
to use the CDs for the teaching of music education.
Moreover instruments like: cassettes , recorder, Tsinatsil, drum, rhythm stick, and tambourine should
be available at school level. The text books strongly suggest those musical instruments to be used in the
teaching of music.
There are also other issues which need to be improved in the text books’ organization. Folk songs’ lyric
should include appropriate educational contents which are relevant for the learners. Some irrelevant
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songs like: marriage and love songs should be left out from the text. Because such songs do not go with
the learners’ age level. Even such issues do not have moral values for the generation. The play songs
which included in the text are too much elementary; rather the learners could perform at their home.
There is also repetition of songs in all text books. We should include some other new songs in the text
books so that the learners shouldn’t be bored with the lessons. The lyrics are not yet written according
to the learners’ age level.
Further, the book doesn’t seem like a music education text book. It is full of poems which are rather
recommended for teaching advanced literature courses. Because of the inappropriateness of the length
of words, it is very hard to compose even a simple melody for the students to memorize. And also the
musical notations are very few and most of them are written for the folksongs which are not relevant
for the learners’ academic activity.
 Some of the lyrics words are not equal in length to compose melody for them easily. Moreover the
songs and lyrics should be interesting, motivating and should also create satisfaction among the
learners so that the teaching of music should remain interesting.

Data from Text Books’ Content Evaluation (Grade 5 and 6)
In this sub topic a review of music education contents are observed in relation to their relevance to the
learners.

The text book is evaluated based on the following criteria
 The Validity of contents
 Contents of the text book
 Significance of contents for the learners
 The scope and depth of contents.
 The applicability of the contents in the text book
 Clarity of the content
 Appropriateness of the text book for the learners

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Table: 4.13 Grade Five Text Book

Authors name

text book
title

1.Deberie abdisa

Music

2.Girma Gemechu teaching
3.Solomon Gelaw book

No of
Years of No of No of No of
No of
publication units pages educationaleducationaldirectly
songs with songs
copied
notation with out
from
notation abroad
1997 E.C

7

69

6

2

3

Source: Compiled by the researcher, Addis Ababa, 2017

Strength
 In terms of academic content the text book is organized better than the first cycle text books (grade
1-4) the contents are suitable for the learners’ age and maturity level. I will write different topics
tittles are as follows. The text book contains better contents which make the students to have better
awareness about music. Some of the contents are: the what of music and music education,
significance of music education, elements of sound and their meanings, the significance of music in
the society, theory of music about note and rest signs; beat, how to read and write musical notes;
musical sounds on the staff, clefs, time signature, bar, bar line, double bar line, Ethiopian music
history, St.Yared’s life history and his works; cultural music and traditional Ethiopian musical
instruments.
Weakness
The book has six songs lyrics with melody (musical notations) but the length of words in the lyrics are
not seat in a uniform format. In case if the teachers are not trained how to read musical notation and if
musical instruments are not available, it is difficult to implement the curriculum, teaching songs with
musical notation for the students.
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There is also a song which is repeated from grade two with the same content and no change in the
melody. One of the repeated song is “ARE YOU SLEEPING?” And other songs are copied from
abroad without any change. Songs entitled “ARE YOU SLEEPING?”, “ROW YOUR BOAT” And
“NEWEYE LENELEYAY”, on page 15, 44,and 69 are also copied from abroad. The first two songs are
not appropriate for their grade level; these songs are better to be included in grade one and two as they
are appropriate at lower grade level. Besides, the songs are copied from abroad and not contextualized
in our countries conditions. There are contents that are difficult for their grade level included- what is
scale? How to build major scale? And How to build Ttizita and Batti kigits.
Table: 4.14. Grade Six Text Book

Authors name

text book
title

1.Deberie abdisa

music

2.Girma Gemechu
3.Solomon Gelaw

teaching

Years of No of No of No of
publication units pages educational
songs with
notation

1997 E.C

7

69

8

No of
educational
songs
with out
notation

4

No of
directly
copied
from
abroad

4

book

Source: Compiled by the researcher, Addis Ababa, 2017

Strength
In terms of academic content the text book is organized better than the first cycle text books (grade 1-4)
the contents are suitable for the learners’ age and maturity level. The text book contains better contents
which make the students to have better awareness about music. Some of the contents are What is
music, characteristics of sound, the significance of music in other subject, how to read and write
musical notes; musical sounds on the staff, time signature, tempo dynamics, Ethiopian music history,
professor Ashenafi Kebede’s life history and his works ; cultural music, traditional Ethiopian music
instruments and modern music instruments.

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