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More Precisely 4.2: The Concept of Angular Momentum

More Precisely 4.2: The Concept of Angular Momentum

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4.3 Formation of the Solar System



These images show possible planetary systems in the process of formation.

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4.3 Formation of the Solar System



Temperature in the cloud determines
where various materials condense out;
this determines where
rocky planets and gas giants form.

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4.4 Planets Beyond the Solar System



Many planets have been discovered in other solar systems; this figure compares recently
discovered exoplanets to Neptune and Earth.

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4.4 Planets Beyond the Solar System



Some planets are discovered through the
“wobble” they create in their parent star’s
orbit.

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4.4 Planets Beyond the Solar System



Others are discovered through the periodic dimming of the parent star’s brightness.

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4.4 Planets Beyond the Solar System



These are the orbits of many extrasolar planets discovered so far. Most have masses
closer to that of Jupiter than that of Earth.

© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.

4.4 Planets Beyond the Solar System



These are the orbits of many extrasolar planets discovered so far.

© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.

4.4 Planets Beyond the Solar System



This plot shows the masses of many
extrasolar planets discovered so far. Most
have masses closer to the mass of Jupiter
or Neptune than that of Earth.

© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.

Summary of Chapter 4



The solar system consists of the Sun and everything
orbiting it.






Asteroids are rocky, and most orbit between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
Comets are icy and are believed to have formed early in the solar system’s life.
Major planets orbit the Sun in same sense, and all but Venus rotate in that sense as well.
Planetary orbits lie almost in the same plane.

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Summary of Chapter 4, cont.





Four inner planets—terrestrial planets—are rocky, small, and dense.
Four outer planets—Jovian planets—are made of gas and liquid and are large.
Nebular theory of solar system formation says that a cloud of gas and dust gradually
collapsed under its own gravity, spinning faster as it shrank.



Condensation theory says dust grains acted as condensation nuclei, beginning formation
of larger objects.

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Summary of Chapter 4, cont.




Planets have been discovered in other solar systems.
Most of those discovered so far are large and orbit much closer to the Sun than the large
planets in our solar system do.

© 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.