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1 Appendix A: Rules in Matrix Algebra

# 1 Appendix A: Rules in Matrix Algebra

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544

14

Appendices

where λi represents the eigenvalues of matrix A and P the dimensionality of that
matrix.
jAj ¼ jAjjBj

(14.8)

tr ðABCÞ ¼ tr ðACBÞ ¼ trðCABÞ ¼ tr ðBCAÞ ¼ tr ðCBAÞ

(14.9)

14.1.4 Trace

14.2

Appendix B: Statistical Tables

14.2.1 Cumulative Normal Distribution
z
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.05
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6

0.00
0.5000
0.5398
0.5793
0.6179
0.6554
0.6915
0.7257
0.7580
0.7881
0.8159
0.8413
0.8643
0.8849
0.9032
0.9192
0.9332
0.9452
0.9554
0.9641
0.9713
0.9772
0.9821
0.9861
0.9893
0.9918
0.9938
0.9953

0.01
0.5040
0.5438
0.5832
0.6217
0.6591
0.6950
0.7291
0.7611
0.7910
0.8186
0.8438
0.8665
0.8869
0.9049
0.9027
0.9345
0.9463
0.9564
0.9649
0.9719
0.9778
0.9826
0.9864
0.9896
0.9920
0.9940
0.9955

0.02
0.5080
0.5478
0.5871
0.6255
0.6628
0.6985
0.7324
0.7642
0.7939
0.8212
0.8461
0.8686
0.8888
0.9066
0.9222
0.9357
0.9474
0.9573
0.9656
0.9726
0.9783
0.9830
0.9868
0.9898
0.9922
0.9941
0.9956

0.03
0.5120
0.5517
0.5910
0.6293
0.6664
0.7019
0.7357
0.7673
0.7967
0.8238
0.8485
0.8708
0.8907
0.9082
0.9236
0.9370
0.9484
0.9582
0.9664
0.9732
0.9788
0.9834
0.9871
0.9901
0.9925
0.9943
0.9957

0.04
0.5160
0.5557
0.5948
0.6331
0.6700
0.7054
0.7389
0.7704
0.7995
0.8264
0.8508
0.8729
0.8925
0.9099
0.9251
0.9382
0.9495
0.9591
0.9671
0.9738
0.9793
0.9838
0.9875
0.9904
0.9927
0.9945
0.9959

0.05
0.5199
0.5596
0.5987
0.6368
0.6736
0.7088
0.7422
0.7734
0.8023
0.8289
0.8531
0.8749
0.8944
0.9115
0.9265
0.9394
0.9505
0.9599
0.9678
0.9744
0.9798
0.9842
0.9878
0.9906
0.9929
0.9946
0.9960

0.06
0.5239
0.5636
0.6026
0.6406
0.6772
0.7123
0.7454
0.7764
0.8051
0.8315
0.8554
0.8770
0.8962
0.9131
0.9279
0.9406
0.9515
0.9608
0.9686
0.9750
0.9803
0.9846
0.9881
0.9909
0.9931
0.9948
0.9961

0.07
0.5279
0.5675
0.6064
0.6443
0.6808
0.7157
0.7486
0.7794
0.8078
0.8340
0.8577
0.8790
0.8980
0.9147
0.9292
0.9418
0.9525
0.9616
0.9693
0.9756
0.9808
0.9850
0.9884
0.9911
0.9932
0.9949
0.9962

0.08
0.09
0.5319 0.5359
0.5714 0.5753
0.6103 0.6141
0.6480 0.6517
0.6844 0.6879
0.7190 0.7224
0.7517 0.7549
0.7823 0.7852
0.8106 0.8133
0.8365 0.8389
0.8599 0.8621
0.8810 0.8830
0.8997 0.9015
0.9162 0.9177
0.9306 0.9319
0.9429 0.9441
0.9535 0.9545
0.9625 0.9633
0.9699 0.9706
0.9761 0.9767
0.9812 0.9817
0.9854 0.9857
0.9887 0.9890
0.9913 0.9916
0.9934 0.9936
0.9951 0.9952
0.9963 0.9964
(continued)

14.2

Appendix B: Statistical Tables

z
2.7
2.8
2.9
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

0.00
0.9965
0.9974
0.9981
0.9987
0.9990
0.9993
0.9995
0.9997

0.01
0.9966
0.9975
0.9982
0.9987
0.9991
0.9993
0.9995
0.9997

0.02
0.9967
0.9976
0.9982
0.9987
0.9991
0.9994
0.9995
0.9997

545

0.03
0.9968
0.9977
0.9983
0.9988
0.9991
0.9994
0.9996
0.9997

0.04
0.9969
0.9977
0.9984
0.9988
0.9992
0.9994
0.9996
0.9997

0.05
0.9970
0.9978
0.9984
0.9989
0.9992
0.9994
0.9996
0.9997

0.06
0.9971
0.9979
0.9985
0.9989
0.9992
0.9994
0.9996
0.9997

0.07
0.9972
0.9979
0.9985
0.9989
0.9992
0.9995
0.9996
0.9997

0.08
0.9973
0.9980
0.9986
0.9990
0.9993
0.9995
0.9996
0.9997

0.09
0.9974
0.9981
0.9986
0.9990
0.9993
0.9995
0.9997
0.9998

14.2.2 Chi-Square Distribution
ν

0.005

0.010

0.025

0.050

0.100

0.250

0.500

0.750

0.900

0.950

0.975

0.990

0.995

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
30
35
40
45
50

0.00004
0.01
0.07
0.21
0.41
0.68
0.99
1.34
1.73
2.16
2.60
3.07
3.57
4.07
4.60
5.14
5.70
6.26
6.84
7.43
8.03
8.64
9.26
9.89
10.52
13.79
17.19
20.71
24.31
27.99

0.0002
0.02
0.11
0.30
0.55
0.87
1.24
1.65
2.09
2.56
3.05
3.57
4.11
4.66
5.23
5.81
6.41
7.01
7.63
8.26
8.90
9.54
10.20
10.86
11.52
14.95
18.51
22.16
25.90
29.71

0.001
0.05
0.22
0.48
0.83
1.24
1.69
2.18
2.70
3.25
3.82
4.40
5.01
5.63
6.26
6.91
7.56
8.23
8.91
9.59
10.28
10.98
11.69
12.40
13.12
16.79
20.57
24.43
28.37
32.36

0.004
0.10
0.35
0.71
1.15
1.64
2.17
2.73
3.33
3.94
4.57
5.23
5.89
6.57
7.26
7.96
8.67
9.39
10.12
10.85
11.59
12.34
13.09
13.85
14.61
18.49
22.47
26.51
30.61
34.76

0.02
0.21
0.58
1.06
1.61
2.20
2.83
3.49
4.17
4.87
5.58
6.30
7.04
7.79
8.55
9.31
10.09
10.86
11.65
12.44
13.24
14.04
14.85
15.66
16.47
20.60
24.80
28.05
33.35
37.69

0.10
0.58
1.21
1.92
2.67
3.45
4.25
5.07
5.90
6.74
7.58
8.44
9.30
10.17
11.04
11.91
12.79
13.68
14.56
15.45
16.34
17.24
18.14
19.04
19.94
24.48
29.05
33.66
38.29
42.94

0.45
1.39
2.37
3.36
4.35
5.35
6.35
7.34
8.34
9.34
10.34
11.34
12.34
13.34
14.34
15.34
16.34
17.34
18.34
19.34
20.34
21.34
22.34
23.34
24.34
29.34
34.34
39.34
44.64
49.33

1.32
2.77
4.11
5.39
6.63
7.84
9.04
10.22
11.39
12.55
13.70
14.85
15.98
17.12
18.25
19.37
20.49
21.60
22.72
23.83
24.93
26.04
27.14
28.24
29.34
34.80
40.22
45.62
50.98
56.33

2.71
4.61
6.25
7.78
9.24
10.64
12.02
13.36
14.68
15.99
17.28
18.55
19.81
21.06
22.31
23.54
24.77
25.99
27.20
28.41
29.62
30.81
32.01
33.20
34.38
40.26
46.06
51.81
57.51
63.17

3.84
5.99
7.81
9.49
11.07
12.59
14.07
15.51
16.92
18.31
19.68
21.03
22.36
23.68
25.00
26.30
27.59
28.87
30.14
31.41
32.67
33.92
35.17
36.42
37.65
43.77
49.80
55.76
61.66
67.50

5.02
7.38
9.35
11.14
12.83
14.45
16.01
17.53
19.02
20.48
21.92
23.34
24.74
26.12
27.49
28.85
30.19
31.53
32.85
34.17
35.48
36.78
38.08
39.36
40.65
46.98
53.20
59.34
65.41
71.42

6.63
9.21
11.34
13.28
15.09
16.81
18.48
20.09
21.67
23.21
24.72
26.22
27.69
29.14
30.58
32.00
33.41
34.81
36.19
37.57
38.93
40.29
41.64
42.98
44.31
50.89
57.34
63.69
69.96
76.15

7.88
10.60
12.84
14.86
16.75
18.55
20.28
21.95
23.59
25.19
26.76
28.30
29.82
31.32
32.80
34.27
35.72
37.16
38.58
40.00
41.40
42.80
44.18
45.56
46.93
53.67
60.27
66.77
73.17
79.49

546

14

Appendices

14.2.3 F Distribution
ν1 ¼ Degrees of freedom for the numerator
ν2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
15
20
25
30
40
50
70
100
1

1
161.45
18.51
10.13
7.71
6.61
5.99
5.59
5.32
5.12
4.96
4.54
4.35
4.24
4.17
4.08
4.03
3.98
3.94
3.84

2
199.50
19.00
9.55
6.94
5.79
5.14
4.74
4.46
4.26
4.10
3.68
3.49
3.39
3.32
3.23
3.18
3.13
3.09
3.00

3
215.71
19.16
9.28
6.59
5.41
4.76
4.35
4.07
3.86
3.71
3.29
3.10
2.99
2.92
2.84
2.79
2.74
2.70
2.60

4
224.58
19.25
9.12
6.39
5.19
4.53
4.12
3.84
3.63
3.48
3.06
2.87
2.76
2.69
2.61
2.56
2.50
2.46
2.37

5
230.16
19.30
9.01
6.26
5.05
4.39
3.97
3.69
3.48
3.33
2.90
2.71
2.60
2.53
2.45
2.40
2.35
2.31
2.21

6
233.99
19.33
8.94
6.16
4.95
4.28
3.87
3.58
3.37
3.22
2.79
2.60
2.49
2.42
2.34
2.29
2.23
2.19
2.10

7
236.77
19.35
8.89
6.09
4.88
4.21
3.79
3.50
3.29
3.14
2.71
2.51
2.40
2.33
2.25
2.20
2.14
2.10
2.01

8
238.88
19.37
8.85
6.04
4.82
4.15
3.73
3.44
3.23
3.07
2.64
2.45
2.34
2.27
2.18
2.13
2.07
2.03
1.94

9
240.54
19.38
8.81
6.00
4.77
4.10
3.68
3.39
3.18
3.02
2.59
2.39
2.28
2.21
2.12
2.07
2.02
1.97
1.88

40
251.14
19.47
8.59
5.72
4.46
3.77
3.34
3.04
2.83
2.66
2.20
1.99
1.87
1.79
1.69
1.63
1.57
1.52
1.39

50
252.20
19.48
8.57
5.69
4.43
3.74
3.30
3.01
2.79
2.62
2.16
1.95
1.82
1.74
1.64
1.58
1.50
1.45
1.34

60
252.20
19.48
8.57
5.69
4.43
3.74
3.30
3.01
2.79
2.62
2.16
1.95
1.82
1.74
1.64
1.58
1.50
1.45
1.31

1
254.19
19.49
8.53
5.63
4.37
3.67
3.23
2.93
2.71
2.54
2.07
1.85
1.72
1.63
1.52
1.45
1.36
1.30
1.30

ν1 ¼ Degrees of freedom for the numerator
ν2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
15
20
25
30
40
50
70
100
1

10
241.88
19.40
8.79
5.96
4.74
4.06
3.64
3.35
3.14
2.98
2.54
2.35
2.24
2.16
2.08
2.03
1.97
1.93
1.83

12
243.91
19.41
8.74
5.91
4.68
4.00
3.57
3.28
3.07
2.91
2.48
2.28
2.16
2.09
2.00
1.95
1.89
1.85
1.75

15
245.95
19.43
8.70
5.86
4.62
3.94
3.51
3.22
3.01
2.85
2.40
2.20
2.09
2.01
1.92
1.87
1.81
1.77
1.67

20
248.01
19.45
8.66
5.80
4.56
3.87
3.44
3.15
2.94
2.77
2.33
2.12
2.01
1.93
1.84
1.78
1.72
1.68
1.57

30
250.10
19.46
8.62
5.75
4.50
3.81
3.38
3.08
2.86
2.70
2.25
2.04
1.92
1.84
1.74
1.69
1.62
1.57
1.46

14.3

14.3

Appendix C: Description of Data Sets

547

Appendix C: Description of Data Sets

The data sets described below can be downloaded from the Web at http://faculty.
Three different kinds of information, which correspond to typically available
data about markets, are provided for analysis: industry, panel, and survey data. In
addition, scanner data is provided for a product category in the form typically
available in actual practice.
The industry data set includes aggregate product and market data for all of the
brands sold in each time period. This type of information is often provided by
all of the firms competing in an industry. The other two data sets contain information collected from a sample of consumers. The first, panel data, is gathered from a
group of consumers who have agreed to periodically record their brand perceptions,
preferences, and purchase behavior. This information is often purchased by
advertisers from syndicated research services and is useful for tracking changes
in consumer behavior over time. The second, survey data, is collected by questionnaire or personal interview from a large group of consumers. Surveys are often
conducted by advertising agencies (such as DDB Needham Worldwide, N. W Ayer,
and others), by survey research companies, and by the advertisers themselves.
These surveys typically measure a broad range of consumer characteristics, including attitudes, interests, values, and lifestyles. This information is especially useful
for selecting target audiences and designing creative appeals.
The MARKSTRAT® market simulation program was used to create the industry
and panel data sets. The survey data set was developed separately to conform to this
environment. We first describe the MARKSTRAT® environment and the
characteristics of the industry. We then present the three types of data provided
with this book and discuss the contents of each data set.

14.3.1 The MARKSTRAT® Environment
To understand the industry in which competing firms operate, the reader must be
familiar with two general dimensions of the MARKSTRAT® environment: (1) the
structure of the industry in terms of the products, competition, and market
characteristics, and (2) the marketing decisions that each firm can make over
time. The discussion that follows concentrates on those aspects that are most

548

14.3.1.1

14

Appendices

Competition and Market Structure

In the MARKSTRAT® environment, five firms compete in a single market with a
number of brands. Each firm starts out with a set of brands and has the ability to
initiate research and development (R&D) projects to create new brands. If an R&D
project is successful, then the sponsoring firm has the option of bringing the new
product to the market. The firm can then modify the product marketed under a given
brand name (i.e., a product improvement) or a new product can be introduced with a
new brand name.

Product Characteristics
The generic products in this industry are consumer durable goods comparable to
electronic entertainment products. They are called Sonites. Because these products
are durable, each customer will usually purchase only one unit over a long period of
time. Consequently, there are no issues of repeat purchase, brand loyalty, or brand
switching in this market.
The products are characterized by five physical attributes: (1) weight
(in kilograms), (2) design (measured on a relative scale), (3) volume (in cubic
decimeters), (4) maximum frequency (in kilohertz), and (5) power (in watts). Not
all attributes are equally important to consumers. Different consumer segments
have different preferences for these product characteristics, although the
preferences are expressed in terms of brand image rather than purely physical
characteristics. Industry research has shown that consumers’ brand evaluations in
this market are a function of their perceptions of the brands on three general
dimensions, related to some degree to the five physical characteristics listed
above that define the product. The first and most important characteristic is the
perceived price of the product. Next, consumers consider the product’s power
(wattage). Finally, they evaluate the product’s design (aesthetic value). Although
less important than the other dimensions, the product’s design helps consumers to
differentiate among the various competing brands. The design attribute is measured
on a scale from 1 to 10 by expert judges, although consumers’ perceptions may vary
from these “rational” expert evaluations. To form an overall evaluation of each
brand, consumers compare their brand’s performance on each dimension with their
preferences for a certain “ideal level” on each of these dimensions.
Because of the durability of the Sonite product and the importance of the
purchase, the consumer decision process tends to follow a “high involvement”
hierarchy. Measures of brand awareness, perceptions, preferences, and purchase
intentions are, therefore, particularly relevant to the advertising decisions.