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Table A-26 Steam Piping (I-P) Flow Rate of Steam in Schedule 40 Pipe at Initial Saturation Pressure of 3.5 and 12 psig

Table A-26 Steam Piping (I-P) Flow Rate of Steam in Schedule 40 Pipe at Initial Saturation Pressure of 3.5 and 12 psig

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Initial Steam
Pressure,
psig

Total Pressure Drop
in Steam Supply Piping,
psi

Pressure Drop
Per 100 Ft, psi

Subatmos, or
vacuum return
0
1
2
5
10
15
30
50
100
150

2–4 oz.
1_w oz.
2 oz.
2 oz.
4 oz.
8 oz.

1–2 psi
1 oz.
1–4 oz.
8 oz.
11_w psi
3 psi

1 psi
2 psi
2–5 psi
2–5 psi
2–10 psi

4 psi
5–10 psi
10–15 psi
15–25 psi
25–30 psi

Table A-28 Pressure Drops In Common Use for Sizing Steam Pipe
(For Corresponding Initial Steam Pressure)

Length in Feet to be Added to Run
Size of Pipe
Inches
1_w
3_r
1
1 1_r
1 1_w
2
2 1_w
3
3 1_w
4
5
6
8
10
12

Standard
Elbow

Side Out−
let Teeb

Gate
Valve 2

Globe
Valve 2

Angle
Valve 2

1.3
1.8
2.2
3.0

3
4
5
6

0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6

14
18
23
29

7
10
12
15

3.5
4.3
5.0
6.5

7
8
11
13

0.8
1.0
1.1
1.4

34
46
54
66

18
22
27
34

8
9
11
13

15
18
22
27

1.6
1.9
2.2
2.8

80
92
112
136

40
45
56
67

17
21
27

35
45
53

3.7
4.6
5.5

180
230
270

92
112
132

Table A-29 Length in Feet of Pipe to be Added to Actual Length of
Run — Owing to Fittings — to Obtain Equivalent Length

A.46

HVAC SYSTEMS Testing, Adjusting & Balancing • Third Edition

Capacity in Pounds per Hour
Two Pipe Systems
Nominal
Pipe Size,
Size
Inches
A

One−Pipe Systems

Condensate Flowing Against Steam
Vertical

Horizontal

Ba

Ca

Supply
Risers Up−Feed
Db

Radiator Valves
and Vertical
Connections
E

Radiator and
Riser Runouts
Fc

3_r
1
1 1_r
1 1_w
2

8
14
31
48
97

7
14
27
42
93

6
11
20
38
72

Ċ
7
16
23
42

7
7
16
16
23

2 1_w
3
3 1_w
4
5

159
282
387
511
1,050

132
200
288
425
788

116
200
286
380
Ċ

Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

42
65
119
186
278

1,800
3,750
7,000
11,500
22,000

1,400
3,000
5,700
9,500
19,000

Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

545
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

6
8
10
12
16

NOTE: Steam at an average pressure of 1 psig is used as a basis of calculating capacities.
a Do

not use Column B for pressure drops of less than 1_qy ft. of equivalent run.

not use Column D for pressure drops of less than 1_wr psi per 100 ft. of equivalent run except on sizes 3
in. and over.
b Do

c Pitch of horizontal runouts to risers and radiators should be not less than 1_w in. per ft.

Where this pitch cannot
be obtained, runouts over 8 ft. in length should be one pipe size larger than called for in this table.

Table A-30 Steam Pipe Capacities for Low Pressure Systems
(For Use on One-Pipe Systems or Two-Pipe Systems in which Condensate
Flows Against the Steam Flow)

HVAC SYSTEMS Testing, Adjusting & Balancing • Third Edition

A.47

1_er psi or 1_w oz
Drop per 100 ft
Pipe
Size
Inch−
es
G

1_wr psi or 2_e oz
Drop per 100 ft

1_qy psi or 1 oz
Drop per 100 ft

Wet

Dry

Vac.

Wet

Dry

Vac.

H

I

J

K

L

M

1_i psi or 2 oz
Drop per 100 ft

1_r psi or 4 oz
Drop per 100 ft

Wet

Dry

Vac.

Wet

Dry

Vac.

Wet

Dry

Vac.

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

Return Main
3_r

Ċ

Ċ

Ċ

Ċ

Ċ

42

Ċ

Ċ

100

Ċ

Ċ

142

Ċ

Ċ

200

1

125

62

Ċ

145

71

143

175

80

175

250

103

249

350

115

350

11_r

213

130

Ċ

248

149

244

300

168

300

425

217

426

600

241

600

11_w

338

206

Ċ

393

236

388

475

265

475

675

340

674

950

378

950

700

470

Ċ

810

535

815

1,000

575

1,000

1,400

740

1,420

2,000

825

2,000

21_w

2

1,180

760

Ċ

1,580

868

1,360

1,680

950

1,680

2,350

1,230

2,380

3,350

1,360

3,350

3

1,880

1,460

Ċ

2,130

1,560

2,180

2,680

1,750

2,680

3,750

2,250

3,800

5,350

2,500

5,350

31_w

2,750

1,970

Ċ

3,300

2,200

3,250

4,000

2,500

4,000

5,500

3,230

5,680

8,000

3,580

8,000

4

3,880

2,930

Ċ

4,580

3,350

4,500

5,500

3,750

5,500

7,750

4,830

7,810 11,000

5,380 11,000

5

Ċ

Ċ

Ċ

Ċ

Ċ

7,880

Ċ

Ċ

9,680

Ċ

Ċ 13,700

Ċ

Ċ 19,400

6

Ċ

Ċ

Ċ

Ċ

Ċ 12,600

Ċ

Ċ 15,500

Ċ

Ċ 22,000

Ċ

Ċ 31,000

Table A-31 Return Main and Riser Capacities
for Low-Pressure Systems—Pounds per Hour
(Reference to this table will be made by column letter G through V)

A.48

HVAC SYSTEMS Testing, Adjusting & Balancing • Third Edition

STEAM PIPING (SI)
Pressure Drop—Pa/m

Nom.
Pipe
Size
mm
20
25
32
40

14 Pa/m

28 Pa/m

58 Pa/m

113 Pa/m

170 Pa/m

225 Pa/m

450 Pa/m

Sat. press. kPa

Sat. press. kPa

Sat. press. kPa

Sat. press. kPa

Sat. press. kPa

Sat. press. kPa

Sat. press. kPa

25
4
8
16
25

85
5
10
20
32

25
6
12
24
38

85
7
14
30
45

25
9
17
35
54

85
11
21
44
67

25
13
24
50
79

85
16
30
63
95

25
16
31
64
99

85
20
37
77
118

25
19
37
73
112

85
23
43
91
138

25
27
52
105
163

85
33
62
127
195

50
65
80
90

49
79
144
210

61
98
172
249

73
117
211
304

88
141
249
363

106
171
299
449

129
209
367
552

152
245
435
640

186
299
526
771

191
308
540
789

231
372
649
953

218
354
626
907

268
431
758
1100

322
522
885
1340

386
621
1090
1560

100
125
150
200

290
544
871
1770

363
649
1040
2180

431
762
1280
2530

526
953
1520
3180

640
1110
1800
3670

767
1360
2200
4540

898
1620
2590
5170

1090
1930
2590
6490

1110
1990
3180
6580

1360
2380
3900
8030

1310
2310
3910
7480

1570
2770
4540
9300

1910
3400
5400

2220
3900
6440

10,900

13,400

250
300

3270
5170

3990
6210

4630
7480

5720
8850

6800

8260

9530

11,800

11,900

14,500

13,600

16,800

19,400

23,600

10,600

12,900

15,000

18,100

18,600

22,500

21,800

26,100

30,800

36,000

Table A-32 Flow Rate in kg/h of Steam in Schedule 40 Pipe at Initial
Saturation Pressure of 15 and 85 kPa Above Atmospheric
Pitch
of
Pipe

20

40

80

120

170

250

350

420

Pipe
Size
mm

Capa−
city
kg/h

Max
Vel.
m/s

Capa−
city
kg/h

Max
Vel.
m/s

Capa−
city
kg/h

Max
Vel.
m/s

Capa−
city
kg/h

Max
Vel.
m/s

Capa−
city
kg/h

Max
Vel.
m/s

Capa−
city
kg/h

Max
Vel.
m/s

Capa−
city
kg/h

Max
Vel.
m/s

Capa−
city
kg/h

Max
Vel.
m/s

20

1.5

2.4

1.9

3.4

2.6

4.0

2.9

4.3

3.2

4.9

3.8

5.2

4.5

6.7

4.8

6.7

25

3.1

2.7

4.1

3.7

5.3

4.6

5.8

5.2

6.7

5.8

7.8

6.7

8.7

7.3

9.3

7.6

32

5.4

3.4

6.8

4.3

9.0

5.2

11.2

6.1

12.2

6.7

14.2

7.6

15.2

7.9

17.3

9.4

40

9.0

3.7

11.7

4.9

15.0

5.8

17.0

6.7

19.1

7.3

15.1

7.9

23.0

8.5

26.9

10.1

50

19.5

4.6

24.5

5.5

31.2

7.3

37.8

8.2

42.1

9.1

45.2

9.8

46.4

9.8

52.2

10.1

Capacity in kg/h, Velocity in m/s

Table A-33 Comparative Capacity of Steam Lines at Various Pitches for
Steam and Condensate Flowing in Opposite Directions

HVAC SYSTEMS Testing, Adjusting & Balancing • Third Edition

A.49

Length in Meters to be Added to Run
Size of
Pipe mm
15
20
25
32

Standard
Elbow
0.4
0.5
0.7
0.9

Side Outlet
Teeb
1
1
1
2

Gate Valve
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2

Globe Valve
4
5
7
9

Angle Valve a
2
3
4
5

40
50
65
80

1.1
1.3
1.5
1.9

2
2
3
4

0.2
0.3
0.3
0.4

10
14
16
20

6
8
8
10

100
125
150

2.7
3.3
4.0

5
7
8

0.5
0.7
0.9

28
34
41

14
17
20

200
250
300
350

5.2
6.4
8.2
9.1

11
14
16
19

1.1
1.4
1.7
1.9

55
70
82
94

28
34
40
46

NOTE:

a Valve

in full open position.

b Valve

given only to a tee used to divert the flow in the main to the last riser.

Table A-34 Equivalent Length of Fittings to be Added to Pipe Run

A.50

HVAC SYSTEMS Testing, Adjusting & Balancing • Third Edition

Capacity, kg/h
Two−Pipe Systems
Nominal Pipe
Size, mm
A

One−Pipe System

Condensate Flowing Against Steam

Supply Risers
Up−feed
Db

Radiator Valves
and Vertical
Connections
E

Radiator and
Riser Runouts
Fc

Vertical

Horizontal

Ba

Ca

20
25
32
40
50

4
6
14
22
44

3
6
12
19
42

3
5
9
17
33

Ċ
3
7
10
19

3
3
7
7
10

65
80
90
100
125

72
128
176
232
476

60
91
131
193
357

53
91
130
172
Ċ

Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

19
29
54
84
126

150
200
250
300
400

816
1700
3180
5220
9980

635
1360
2590
4310
8620

Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

247
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

NOTE: Steam at an average pressure of 7 kPa above atmospheric is used as a basis of calculating capacities.
a Do

not use Column B for pressure drops of less than 13 Pa/m of equivalent run.

b Do not use Column D for pressure drops of less than 9 Pa/m of equivalent run except on sizes 88 mm and
over.
c Pitch of horizontal runouts to risers and radiators should not be less than 40 mm/m. Where this pitch cannot
be obtained, runouts over 2.5 m in length should be one pipe size larger than called for in this table.

Table A-35 Steam Pipe Capacities for Low-Pressure Systems
(For Use on One-Pipe Systems or Two-Pipe Systems in which
Condensate Flows Against the Steam Flow)

HVAC SYSTEMS Testing, Adjusting & Balancing • Third Edition

A.51

7 Pa/m

9 Pa/m

14 Pa/m

28 Pa/m

57 Pa/m

Pipe
Size,
mm

Wet

Dry

Vac.

Wet

Dry

Vac.

Wet

Dry

Vac.

Wet

Dry

Vac.

Wet

Dry

Vac.

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

20
25
32
40
50

Ċ
57
97
153
318

Ċ
28
59
93
213

Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

Ċ
66
112
178
367

Ċ
32
68
107
243

19
65
111
176
370

Return Main
Ċ
Ċ
79
36
136
76
215
120
454
261

45
79
136
215
454

Ċ
113
193
306
635

Ċ
47
98
154
336

64
113
193
306
644

Ċ
159
272
431
907

Ċ
52
109
171
374

91
159
272
431
907

65
80
90
100
125
150

535
853
1,125
1,760
Ċ
Ċ

345
662
894
1,330
Ċ
Ċ

Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

717
967
1,500
2,080
Ċ
Ċ

394
708
998
1,520
Ċ
Ċ

616
989
1,400
2,040
3,570
5,720

762
1,220
1,810
2,490
4,390
7,030

1,070
1,700
2,490
3,520
Ċ
Ċ

558
1,020
1,470
2,190
Ċ
Ċ

1,080
1,720
2,580
3,540
6,210
9,980

762
1,220
1,810
2,490
Ċ
Ċ

431
794
1,130
1,700
Ċ
Ċ

1,520
617 1,520
2,430 1,130 2,430
3,630 1,620 3,630
4,990 2,440 4,990
Ċ
Ċ 8,800
Ċ
Ċ 14,100

Riser
20
25
32
40
50

Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

22
51
112
170
340

Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

22
51
112
170
340

65
111
176
370
616

Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

22
51
112
170
340

79
136
215
454
762

Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

22
51
112
170
340

113
193
306
644
1,080

Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

65
70
80
100
125

Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

989
1,470
2,030
3,570
5,720

Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

1,220
1,810
2,490
4,390
7,030

Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

1,720
2,580
3,540
6,210
9,980

Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ
Ċ

Table A-36 Return Main and Riser Capacities
for Low-Pressure Systems — kg/h

A.52

HVAC SYSTEMS Testing, Adjusting & Balancing • Third Edition

22
51
112
170
340

159
272
431
907
1,520

Ċ 2,430
Ċ 3,630
Ċ 4,990
Ċ 8,800
Ċ 14,100

Sample Specification for Testing, Adjusting and Balancing
The minimum requirements for testing, adjusting and balancing (TAB) of heating, ventilating and air conditioning
(HVAC) distribution systems shall be as follows:
1.

The TAB Contractor shall review and become thoroughly familiar with the basic duct and piping installation
layout prior to ceiling and wall installation. Prior to any closing−in of ductwork and piping, verify that all
fittings, dampers, control devices, test devices and valves are properly located and installed.

2.

Examine each air and hydronic distribution system to see that is is free from obstructions. Confirm that all
dampers, registers and valves are operating and in a set or full open position; that moving equipment is lubri−
cated and functioning properly; and that the required filters are clean and installed. Request that the installing
contractor perform any adjustments necessary for proper functioning of the system.

3.

The TAB Contractor shall use test instruments that have been calibrated within a time period recommended
by the manufacturer or in the SMACNA HVAC SYSTEMS Testing, Adjusting and Balancing manual, and that
they have been checked for accuracy prior to the start of the testing, adjusting and balancing activity.

4.

Verify that all equipment performs as specified. Adjust variable type drives, column dampers, control damp−
ers, balancing valves and control valves as required by the TAB work.

5.

Adjust each register, diffuser and terminal unit to handle and properly distribute the design airflow within
10 % of the specified quantities.

6.

Adjust all balancing equipment so that each heating/cooling coil is furnished with the design fluid within
10 % of the specified quantities.

7.

Document the results of all testing on SMACNA TAB Report Forms and submit specified copies for approval
and record.

8.

All TAB work shall be performed in accordance with the methods and the procedures described in the
SMACNA HVAC SYSTEMS Testing, Adjusting and Balancing manual.

9.

The TAB Contractor shall become familiar with and comply with the provisions of all national, state, and
local codes, ordinances, and safety acts that affect the TAB work.

10. HVAC systems utilizing microprocessor temperature controls, variable speed fans and pumps, and variable
air terminal boxes should have the control system contractor on site during all primary system TAB work to
provide any software programming or setpoint modifications required.

HVAC SYSTEMS Testing, Adjusting & Balancing • Third Edition

A.53

REFERENCES
Publications from the following sources can be used as
reference material to supplement the information con−
tained in this manual. The members of the SMACNA
Duct Design Committee express their thanks and ap−
preciation to these firms for allowing selected text, fig−
ures and tables to be used in this manual.
1.

Alnor Instrument Company

2. AMCA Fan Application Manuals Ċ Air Move−
ment and Control Association, Inc.

A.54

3. ASHRAE Handbooks Ċ American Society of
Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engi−
neers
4.

Bell and Gossett, Fluid Handling Division, ITT

5. Carrier System Design Manuals Ċ Carrier Cor−
poration
6. Fans and Their Application in Air Condition−
ingĊTrane Company
7. Products of Environmental Elements Corporation
Ċ Titus Corporation

HVAC SYSTEMS Testing, Adjusting & Balancing • Third Edition

GLOSSARY