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9 TESTING PRESSURE-LIMITING DEVICES, RELIEF VALVES, PRESSURE REGULATORS, AND CONTROL EQUIPMENT

9 TESTING PRESSURE-LIMITING DEVICES, RELIEF VALVES, PRESSURE REGULATORS, AND CONTROL EQUIPMENT

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AS 4041 — 1998

136

S E C T I O N

7

P R O T E C T I V E
A N D D E V I C E S

S Y S T E M S

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7.1 GENERAL
7.1.1 Basic requirement Pressure piping shall be protected as specified in this
Standard and as necessary to ensure the piping operates reliably and safely under the
expected conditions of service.
7.1.2 Protective systems Protective systems required in this Section shall be specified
in the engineering design and be acceptable to the owner.
7.1.3 Design and construction Protective systems and devices shall —
(a) be of material, design (including the number, size, type, and location) and
construction to permit the system and devices to perform their required function
under the expected conditions of service; and
(b) comply with AS 1271 or other agreed Standard.
Where any such device or fitting is not supplied by the fabricator, the owner shall be
responsible for ensuring that it is supplied and properly fitted before the piping is placed
into service.
7.2 PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE CONTROL SYSTEMS Suitable control
shall be provided to ensure that the pressure and temperature of piping components are
controlled within the limits of the engineering design and this Standard (see Clause 3.9.3
for pressure reducing systems).
7.3 PRESSURE RELIEF SYSTEMS
7.3.1 General Where a pressure greater than that specified in the engineering design
can occur such as from a failure of control devices, solar heating or process, suitable
pressure relief systems shall be provided.
Such systems, by appropriate design and devices, shall —
(a) prevent the pressure in the piping exceeding 115 percent of the design pressure for
Classes 1 and 2 and 125 percent from the design pressure for Class 3;
(b) ensure that discharges from pressure-relieving devices are in positions that will be
safe; and
(c) where piping can be shut off between valves when full of liquid, provide for
hydrostatic pressure relief to ensure that the maximum safe working component of
the weakest component in the protected system is not exceeded.
7.3.2 Stop valves in pressure relief systems A stop valve shall not be located between
protected piping and the protective device or devices, nor between the protective device or
devices and the point of discharge, except as follows:
(a) One stop valve may be installed on the inlet side and one may be placed on the
discharge side of a pressure-relieving device, where the discharge is connected to a
header common to other discharge lines from other pressure-relieving devices. The
stop valves shall be the full-area type or such other type and size that an increase in
pressure drop will not reduce the relieving capacity to less than that required, or
adversely affect the proper operation of the pressure-relieving device. The stop
valves shall be lockable or sealable in the open and the closed positions. When the
stop valves are in the closed position with the equipment operating, an authorized
person shall be able to observe the operating pressure, and shall have means for
relieving overpressure. The authorized person shall lock or seal the stop valves in
the open position when observation ceases, or an alternative interlocking system of
equivalent safety shall be used.
© Standards Australia

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137

(b)

AS 4041 — 1998

The stop valves shall be constructed or controlled positively so that, with the
maximum possible number of valves closed at one time, the remaining
pressure-relieving capacity will be not less than the required relieving capacity.

7.4 CORROSION PROTECTION Piping shall be protected against internal and
external corrosion during design life unless the design principle used is to do nothing and
monitor the thickness. Design life may be enhanced by replaceable components.
Protection may be afforded by one or more of the following:
(a)

Corrosion-resistant piping components.

(b)

Protective coating, e.g. galvanized steel, paints.

(c)

Cathodic protection.

(d)

Modify pipeline contents.

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Piping not protected as above shall be located and installed to prevent corrosion, e.g.
trenches shall be drained to prevent accumulation of water, wash, or contaminants which
could seriously corrode the piping.
7.5 FIRE PROTECTION Piping of nominal size larger than DN 100 containing
flammable or combustible fluid in areas where there is risk of fire, e.g. due to ruptured
pipe, fitting, or accessory, shall have one or more of the following protective systems:
(a)

Flameproof equipment and fire prevention practices (i.e. elimination of ignition
sources).

(b)

A suitable firefighting system which shall be maintained.

(c)

A slope and drainage that will safely remove spilling flammable liquid from the
vicinity of the piping.

(d)

Valves or other devices to shut off spilling flammable liquid which can be operated
manually from a position remote from any resultant fire.

(e)

Excess flow or automatic shut-off valves, or automatic depressurization, to limit the
quantity and rate of fluid escaping.

(f)

Insulation against fire (this includes the location of piping underground).

(g)

Flammable vapour detectors should be considered in areas where normal electrical
equipment (i.e. not waterproof) is present.

The discharge point of piping which will release flammable fluid into areas where ignition
could be reasonably expected shall have a flame arrestor, and preferably shall be at a
permanently burning flare. In any case, the discharge point shall be safe.
7.6 EARTHING Piping shall, where necessary, be suitably earthed in accordance with
the appropriate Standards (see Clause 7.5) to prevent ignition sources from by static
electricity and to give corrosion protection (see Clause 7.4) and lightning protection (see
Clause 7.8). Precaution to be taken when cutting earthed pipes is given in AS 3500.1.
7.7 PROTECTION FROM IMPACT Piping containing a lethal, flammable or toxic
fluid, or a fluid harmful to human tissue, shall be protected against external impact (e.g.
colliding trucks) and inadvertent external loads (e.g. persons climbing onto fragile
piping). The means of protection may include a naturally protected location, increased
pipe thickness, sleeving, or crash barriers and the erection of warning signs.

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© Standards Australia

AS 4041 — 1998

138

7.8 LIGHTNING PROTECTION Vertical piping, particularly that for venting
flammable gases, shall be located so as to minimize the possibility of strike by lightning,
or shall be designed to dissipate lightning strikes (see AS 1768).
7.9 HUMAN CONTACT PROTECTION Piping components with an external surface
temperature higher than 65°C or lower than −20°C shall be located or protected to prevent
inadvertent human contact.
7.10 NOISE CONTROL Piping shall be designed, installed and, if necessary, fitted
with devices to control noise levels to any limits specified in the engineering design.
Noise control methods include limiting velocities of fluid within pipe, suitable supports,
silencers in the pipe or at the discharge, and insulation.

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7.11 ISOLATION PROTECTION (FOR INTERCONNECTED PIPING) Piping,
components, vessels, and the like which require opening for or entry of personnel for
cleaning, maintenance, or repairs shall have a block valve and spade, or a removable
spool piece between the piping, component, vessel, and all other piping (including drains)
and any other source of pressure or danger. Safe fluids (fluid 4) and low pressures may
use one isolation mechanism.
7.12

NOT ALLOCATED

7.13 PROTECTION AGAINST INTERFERENCE Piping controls and protective
valves and other devices shall be located or protected to avoid —
(a)

their being rendered inoperative or tampered with by unauthorized persons;

(b)

malfunction caused by the entrance of dirt, water, or wild life; and

(c)

malfunction caused by the freezing of their operating parts.

Piping containing fluids dangerous to human tissue should be isolated or otherwise
protected to minimize human interference.
The location of piping controls, protective valves and other devices shall enable access by
authorized persons.

© Standards Australia

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139

S E C T I O N

8.1

AS 4041 — 1998

8
Q U A L I T Y A S S U R A N C E
A N D I N S P E C T I O N

GENERAL

8.1.1 Scope This Section deals with quality assurance by the manufacturer and
inspection by the owner or an inspection body on behalf of the owner. In this Standard
‘inspection’ applies to the inspection function performed for the owner by the owner’s
inspector or representative. ‘Examination’ and ‘testing’ are functions performed by the
fabricator.
8.1.2 Basic requirements Piping shall be designed and fabricated under an accredited
quality system by the manufacturer or inspected, where specified in AS 3920.1 to provide
assurance that the design, material, fabrication, installation, testing, and protective systems
and devices comply with the requirements of this Standard.

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The owner, through an inspector shall —
(a)

verify that all required examinations and tests have been completed and inspect the
piping to the extent necessary to satisfy that the piping complies with all applicable
requirements of this Standard; or

(b)

be satisfied that a current accredited quality system is operated by the manufacturer.

NOTE: The inspection requirements in Clauses 8.2 to 8.4 provide for flexibility on the extent of
inspection by the owner or owner’s representative, by inclusion of ‘where required’. The extent
of this inspection will depend on many factors including the hazard level of piping and whether
the fabricator has an effective quality system. Reduced inspection does not in any way reduce
the responsibility of the fabricator.

8.1.3 Inspectors The inspector shall be designated by the owner, and shall be the
owner, or an employee of the owner, or an employee of an engineering, inspection or
insurance or other organization acting as an agent for the owner.
The inspector shall be competent in the inspection of piping. The inspector shall have
each of the following:
(a)

A minimum of one year’s experience in the design, fabrication, or inspection of
pressure piping.

(b)

An additional year of similar experience in pressure equipment.

(c)

At least one of the following:
(i)

Welding Supervisor’s Certificate No. 10 as specified in AS 1796.

(ii)

Welding Inspector’s Certificate issued by the Welding Technology Institute
of Australia or the Certification board for Inspection Personnel N.Z. or
equivalent.

(iii)

Certificate, diploma, or degree in engineering.

(iv)

Three years’ similar experience in pressure equipment.
NOTE: Pressure equipment embraces piping, boilers, pressure vessels and gas
cylinders.

(d)

The capability to perform the required inspection.

Alternatives to Items (a) to (d) above are compliance with AS 3920.1 or AS/NZS 4481 or
equivalent.

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© Standards Australia

AS 4041 — 1998

8.2

140

REVIEW OF DESIGN

8.2.1 Design verification
required by AS 3920.1.

The owner shall ensure that the design has been verified as

8.2.2 Approval of design Where required, the design shall be approved by the owner
before commissioning and preferably before fabrication is commenced.
8.3

MATERIAL AND COMPONENT INSPECTION

8.3.1 Materials and components Where required materials and components used in
the piping shall be inspected by the inspector before fabrication.
Repairs of defective material or component shall only be made where authorized by the
inspector.
8.3.2 Marking For Class 1 piping, the inspector shall examine all materials and
components, certificates, and be satisfied that all materials and components are identified
in accordance with the appropriate material or component specifications.

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For piping of Classes 2 and 3, certificates and marking shall be inspected as required by
the inspector.
8.4 GENERAL INSPECTION OF FABRICATION Where required the inspector
shall verify that the examinations and operations have been carried out in accordance with
this Standard. The extent of inspection shall be to satisfy the inspector.

© Standards Australia

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141

S E C T I O N

9.1

9

C O M M I S S I O N I N G
O P E R A T I O N

AS 4041 — 1998

A N D

COMMISSIONING

9.1.1 General Piping shall be placed into operation only when it has been declared
safe by the inspector.
The piping shall be initially operated in a manner to allow the inspector to safely check
that all parts of the system function correctly. This shall include an inspection of all
controls and safety devices, flow, pressure drops and drainage, the tightness of joints, and
other features to ensure satisfactory operation.
9.1.2 Commissioning personnel
to be competent by the purchaser.

Commissioning shall be carried out by persons judged

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9.1.3 Alarm and shutdown systems Instrumentation for safe operation of piping shall
be tested before piping operation in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.
Alarms and emergency shutdowns shall be tested before piping operation.
9.1.4 Pressure-limiting devices, relief valves, pressure regulators and control
equipment All pressure-limiting devices, relief valves, pressure regulators, and control
equipment shall be tested for —
(a)

good mechanical condition;

(b)

adequate capacity, effectiveness and reliability for operation in the service for which
they are employed;

(c)

function at the correct pressure, temperature or flow; and

(d)

proper location and installation, free from foreign materials, or other conditions that
may prevent proper operation.

9.1.5

Identification

See Clause 4.5.

9.1.6 Support settings Supports with variable springs, constant effort units,
counterweight units or hydraulic units designed to carry the weight of the pipe should
have their load settings checked and set to cold design loads.
Where the fluid is a liquid, the settings should be checked again and reset if necessary to
the ‘cold and filled design loads’ when the pipe is filled with liquid. Load settings shall
be checked again and set to operating design loads when the pipes have reached their
operating temperature.
All supports, including wind and earthquake restraints and snubbers, shall be checked to
ensure that they are within their design travel range under both cold and operating
conditions.
9.2

OPERATION

9.2.1 General The owner shall ensure the safe operation of piping within the limits
and conditions of the engineering design and AS 3873.

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© Standards Australia

AS 4041 — 1998

142

APPENDIX

A

LIST OF REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
(Normative)

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AS
1074

Steel tubes and tubulars for ordinary service

1170
1170.2
1170.4

Minimum design loads on structures (known as the SAA Loading Code)
Part 2: Wind loads
Part 4: Earthquake loads

1210
1210 Supp1

Pressure vessels
Unfired Pressure Vessels — Advance design and construction (Supplement
to AS 1210 — 1997)

1228

Pressure equipment — Boilers

1271

Safety valves, other valves, liquid level gauges and other fittings for
boilers and unfired pressure vessels

1345

Identification of the contents of piping, conduits and ducts

1349

Bourdon tube pressure and vacuum gauges

1375

Industrial fuel-fired appliances (known as the SAA Industrial Fuel-fired
Appliances Code)

1391

Methods for tensile testing of metals

1432

Copper tubes for plumbing, gasfitting and drainage applications

1448

Carbon steels and carbon-manganese steels — Forgings

1460

Fittings for use with polyethylene pipes

1544
1544.2

Methods for impact tests on metals
Part 2: Charpy V-notch

1548

Steel plates for pressure equipment

1565

Copper and copper alloys — Ingots and castings

1566

Copper and copper alloys — Rolled flat products

1569

Copper and copper alloys — Seamless tubes for heat exchangers

1572

Copper and copper alloys — Seamless tubes for engineering purposes

1579

Arc welded steel pipes and fittings for water and waste water

1628

Water supply — Copper alloy gate, globe and non-return valves

1663

Method for dropweight test for nil-ductility transition temperature of
ferritic steels

1692

Tanks for flammable and combustible liquids

1697

Gas transmission and distribution systems (known as the SAA Gas Pipeline
Code)

1721

General purpose metric screw threads

1722
1722.1
1722.2

Pipe threads of Whitworth form
Part 1: Sealing pipe threads
Part 2: Fastening pipe threads

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143

A1

A1

AS 4041 — 1998

AS
1733

Methods of the determination of grain size in metals

1751

Copper brazed steel tubing

1768

Lightning protection

1796

Certification of welders and welding supervisors

1830

Iron castings — Grey cast iron

1831

Iron castings — Spheroidal or nodular graphite cast iron

1832

Iron castings — Malleable cast iron

1833

Iron castings — Austenitic cast iron

1874

Aluminium and aluminium alloys — Ingots and castings

1940

The storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids

2018

Liquid petroleum pipelines (known as the SAA Liquid Petroleum Pipeline
Code)

2022

Anhydrous ammonia — Storage
Anhydrous Ammonia Code)

2129

Flanges for pipes, valves and fittings

2291

Methods for tensile testing of metals at elevated temperatures

2465

Unified hexagon bolts, screws and nuts (UNC and UNF threads)

2528

Bolts, studbolts and nuts for flanges and other high and low temperature
applications

2809

Road tank vehicles for dangerous goods

2885

Pipelines — Gas and liquid petroleum

3500
3500.1

National Plumbing and Drainage Code
Part 1: Water supply

3672

Wrought steel threaded pipe fittings

3673

Malleable cast iron threaded pipe fittings

3688

Water supply — Copper and copper alloy body compression fittings and
threaded-end connection

3689

Automatic fire extinguisher systems using halogenated hydrocarbons

3873

Pressure equipment — Operation and maintenance

3892

Pressure equipment — Installation

3920
3920.1

Assurance of product quality
Part 1: Pressure equipment manufacture

3990

Steelwork for engineering applications

 4037

and

handling

as

the

SAA

Pressure equipment — Examination and testing

4087

Metallic flanges for water works purposes

4118

Fire sprinkler systems

 4343

(known

Pressure equipment — Hazard levels

4458

Pressure equipment — Manufacture

B148

Unified black hexagon bolts, screws and nuts (UNC and UNF threads) and
plain washers — Heavy series

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© Standards Australia

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AS 4041 — 1998

144

AS/NZS
1110

ISO metric hexagon precision bolts and screws

1111

ISO metric hexagon commercial bolts and screws

1112

ISO metric hexagon nuts, including thin nuts, slotted nuts and castle nuts

1200

Pressure equipment

1252

High strength steel bolts with associated nuts and washers for structural
engineering

1376

Conversion factors

1477

PVC pipes and fittings for pressure applications

1554
1554.1

Structural steel welding
Part 1:
Welding of steel structures

1567

Copper and copper alloys — Wrought rods, bars and sections

1571

Copper — Seamless tubes for airconditioning and refrigeration

1594

Hot-rolled steel flat products

1596

Storage and handling of Liquefied Petroelum Gas

1664

Aluminium structures

1677

Refrigerating systems

1734

Aluminium and aluminium alloys — Flat sheet, coiled sheet and plate

1865

Aluminium and aluminium alloys — Drawn wire, rod, bar and strip

1866

Aluminium and aluminium alloys — Extruded rod, bar, solid and hollow
shapes

1867

Aluminium and aluminium alloys — Drawn tubes

2280

Ductile iron pressure pipes and fittings

2544

Grey iron pressure fittings

3678

Structural steel — Hot-rolled plates, floor plates and slabs

3679
3679.1
3679.2

Structural steel
Part 1:
Hot-rolled bars and sections
Part 2:
Welded I sections

3788

Pressure equipment — In-service inspection

3992

Pressure equipment — Welding and brazing qualification

4129(Int)

Fittings for polyethylene (PE) for pressure applications

4130

Polyethylene (PE) pipes for pressure applications

4481

Pressure equipment — Competencies of inspectors

4331

Metallic flanges

ISO
9329

Seamless steel tubes for pressure purposes — Technical delivery conditions

9330

Welded steel tubes for pressure purposes — Technical delivery conditions

ANSI/ASME
B1.20.1
Pipe threads, general purpose (inch)
B16.5

Pipe flanges and flanged fittings

B16.9

Factory-made wrought steel butt-welding fittings

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145

AS 4041 — 1998

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ANSI/ASME
B16.10
Face-to-face and end-to-end dimensions of valves
B16.11

Forged fittings, socket-welding and threaded

B16.20

Metallic gaskets for pipe flanges — Ring-joint-spiral wound and jacketed

B16.21

Nonmetallic flat gaskets for pipe flanges

B16.34

Valves — Flanged, threaded and welding end

B16.47

Large diameter steel flanges

B31.1

Power piping

B31.3

Process piping

B31.5

Refrigeration piping

B31.8

Gas transmission and distribution piping systems

B31.11

Slurry transportation piping systems

B36.10

Welded and seamless wrought steel pipe

BPV-III

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III Rules for construction of
nuclear power plant components

BPV-IX

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX Qualification Standard for
welding and brazing procedures, welders, brazers and welding and brazing
operators

API
5B

Specification for threading, gauging and thread inspection of casing, tubing
and line pipe threads

5L

Specification for line pipe

STD 600

Steel gate valves, flanged and butt-welding end

STD 602

Compact steel gate valves

STD 603

Class 150, cast, corrosion resistant, flanged-end gate valve

STD 606

Compact carbon steel gate valves

ASTM
A 53

Specification for pipe, steel, black and hot-dipped, zinc-coated welded and
seamless

A 105

Specification for carbon steel forgings for piping applications

A 106

Specification for seamless carbon steel pipe for high-temperature service

A 108

Specification for steel bars, carbon, cold-finished, standard quality

A 135

Specification for electric-resistance-welded steel pipe

A 178

Specification for electric-resistance-welded
manganese steel boiler and superheater tubes

A 179

Specification for seamless cold-drawn low-carbon steel heat-exchanger and
condenser tubes

A 181

Specification for carbon steel forgings for general purpose piping

A 182

Specification for forged or rolled alloy-steel pipe flanges, forged fittings, and
valves and parts for high-temperature service

A 193

Specification for alloy-steel and stainless steel bolting materials for
high-temperature service

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carbon

steel

and

carbon-

© Standards Australia

AS 4041 — 1998

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ASTM
A 194

146

Specification for carbon and alloy steel nuts for bolts for high-pressure and
high-temperature service

A 199

Standard specification for seamless cold-drawn intermediate alloy-steel heatexchanger and condenser tubes

A 203

Specification for pressure vessel plates, alloy steel, nickel

A 204

Specification for pressure vessel plates, alloy steel, molybdenum

A 209

Specification for seamless carbon-molybdenum alloy-steel
superheater tubes

A 210

Specification for seamless medium-carbon steel boiler and superheater tubes

A 213

Specification for seamless ferritic
superheater, and heat-exchanger tubes

A 216

Specification for steel castings, carbon, suitable for fusion welding for
high-temperature service

A 217

Specification for steel castings, martensitic stainless and alloy, for
pressure-containing parts suitable for high-temperature service

A 234

Specification for piping fittings of wrought carbon steel and alloy steel for
moderate and high temperature service

A 240

Specification for heat-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel stainless steel
plate, sheet, and strip for pressure vessels

A 249

Specification for welded austenitic steel boiler, superheater, heat-exchanger, and
condenser tubes

A 250

Specification for electric-resistance-welded ferritic alloy-steel boiler and
superheater tubes

A 268

Specification for seamless and welded ferritic and martensitic stainless steel
tubing for general service

A 269

Specification for seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel tubing for
general service

A 276

Specification for stainless steel bars and shapes

A 302

Specification for pressure vessel plates, alloy steel, manganese-molybdenum and
manganese-molybdenum-nickel

A 307

Specification for carbon steel bolts and studs, 60 000 psi tensile strength

A 312

Specification for seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel pipes

A 320

Specification for alloy steel bolting materials for low-temperature service

A 325

Specification for structural bolts, steel, heat-treated, 120/105 ksi minimum
tensile strength

A 333

Specification for seamless and welded steel pipe for low-temperature service

A 334

Specification for seamless and welded carbon and alloy-steel tubes for
low-temperature service

A 335

Specification for seamless ferritic alloy steel pipe for high-temperature
service

A 336

Specification for alloy steel forgings for pressure and high-temperature parts

© Standards Australia

and

austenitic

boiler and

alloy-steel

boiler,

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