Tải bản đầy đủ
4 SECURITY, SIGNS AND NOTICES

4 SECURITY, SIGNS AND NOTICES

Tải bản đầy đủ

AS 1940—1993

22

(c)

A storage containing 2000 L or less of PG

liquid.

(d)

A temporary or mobile storage for the use of contractors on a construction site.

3.4.2 Signs and notices Any warnings, conditions of entry, emergency directions or
other information intended for persons entering a restricted area shall be displayed on
signs and notices at each point of access.
Such signs and notices shall include but not be limited to —
(a)

a DANGER—NO SMOKING, NO NAKED FLAMES sign;

(b)

a class label and subsidiary risk label;

(c)

a WARNING—RESTRICTED AREA, AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY notice;

(d)

an Emergency Contact phone number sign;

(e)

a name, address and phone number of occupier; and

(f)

a layout diagram showing location of fixed fire protection facilities (where
installed), drainage system and ‘Emergency Stop’ switch.
NOTE: Where two or more points of access are adjacent to each other so that a single set of
signs and notices are clearly readable from each point of access, duplicate signs and notices are
not required.

Licensed to LUU MINH LUAN on 25 Feb 2002. Single user licence only. Storage, distribution or use on network prohibited.

3.4.3 Sign construction Signs shall be constructed in accordance with AS 1319. Class
labels shall be a minimum of 250 mm square or as specified by Worksafe Australia.
The remaining signs shall have lettering at least 20 mm high. Composite signs or
pictographs complying with the above requirement are acceptable.

COPYRIGHT

23

S E C T I O N

4
PA C K A G E S T O R A G E
H A N D L I N G A R E A S

AS 1940—1993

A N D

4.1 APPLICATION This Section applies to any installation in which packages of
flammable or combustible liquids may be stored, or may be involved in filling, decanting,
or cleaning, in quantities in excess of minor storage as described in Section 2. Sections 3,
9 and 10 also contain requirements applicable to package storages.

Licensed to LUU MINH LUAN on 25 Feb 2002. Single user licence only. Storage, distribution or use on network prohibited.

4.1.1 Storage details This Section deals with the following types of storage, and
variations or combinations of them:
(a)

Detached storages, being storages with or without a roof, or walls other than a bund
(refer Figure 4.1(a)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv)).

(b)

Attached fire separated storage, being a storage attached to a building with outside
entry and no communication to the associated building.

(c)

Attached storage, sharing a wall or walls with the associated building and with a
communicating fire door between the store and the associated building (refer to
Figure 4.1(b)(i), (ii)).

(d)

Internal storage, being a storage wholly within a building, not sharing a common
wall with the building and communicating with the associated building (refer
Figure 4.1(c)(i), (ii)).

(e)

Fire separated storages, being grouped storages with no communication between
adjacent storages (refer Figure 4.1(d)).

(f)

A storage cabinet located within a building or located outside a building as an
outdoor storage.

(g)

Facilities for the holding of materials awaiting use in a process, machine or the like.

Variations of types (a), (b), (c) or (d) above include storages with facilities for filling,
decanting and cleaning of packages and storages either at ground level or on a platform,
or a combination of both.
4.2

LOCATION AND SEPARATION DISTANCES

4.2.1 Separation distances A storage facility shall be located in accordance with the
following requirements, as qualified in Section 3:
(a)

The distance to any protected works shall be as specified in Table 4.1.

(b)

The distance to any on-site facility shall be as specified in Table 4.1, but need not
exceed 15 m for flammable liquids, 7.5 m for Class C1 liquids, or 3 m for Class C2
liquids.
NOTE: Any small office within the storage area that is used for the direct supervision of the
storage is not considered an on-site facility.

(c)

The distance to any boundary, or potential ignition source, shall be as specified in
Table 4.2.
NOTE: See also Clauses 4.2.1(a) and 3.2.5(c).

(d)

The distance to any tank storage shall be as specified in Section 5.

(e)

Separation distances shall be measured from the internal perimeter of the bund.

COPYRIGHT

AS 1940—1993

(f)

Where the internal storage has an in-built firewall or vapour barrier, separation
distances shall be measured from the nearest point of potential exit of vapour, e.g.
the outlet of a natural vent or a door. Where a fire door connects a storage area with
an associated working area the distance from the fire door to an ignition source
shall be not less than as shown in Table 4.2 to a height in compliance with
AS 2430.

(g)

Where drainage to a separate compound, drainage tank or sump is provided as in
Clause 4.3.3, the separation distances specified in Table 4.1 shall be determined and
applied as follows:

(h)

Licensed to LUU MINH LUAN on 25 Feb 2002. Single user licence only. Storage, distribution or use on network prohibited.

24

(i)

For the storage area itself, the separation distances shall be measured from
the internal perimeter of the storage area.

(ii)

Any remote sump, compound or tank shall be treated as if it was a tank, of a
capacity equal to that required for the compound by Clause 4.3.3.

(iii)

For any open drainage channel, open tank or vent the separation distances
shall be the extent of the hazardous zone as determined in AS 2430.3.

Where two or more separate storage areas are located on the same premises, they
may be considered separately for the determination of separation distances, provided
that each pair of storages is mutually separated by the distances given in Table 4.1
for the capacity of the greater of the two storages under consideration but in any
case not less than 5 m; otherwise the aggregate capacity of the two storages shall be
used to determine the distances.
This provision may be applied to storages under a single roof provided the shelter
has no walls.

(i)

Where flammable or combustible liquids of differing flashpoints are kept in the one
storage, the distances shall be those for the class with the lowest flashpoint present,
but based on the aggregate quantity of all liquids stored. Minor storage quantities
are exempted from this requirement.

(j)

Adjacent storages separated by 240/240/240 firewalls and fitted with −/240/30 doors
with no access between compartments may be treated as individual storages without
aggregation for the purpose of determination of separation distances (see
Figure 4.1(d)).

4.2.2 Location of internal storages Unless specifically approved otherwise, all
internal storages except in cabinets shall be located on the floor directly accessible from
street level or site roadway.
NOTE: The building in which the internal storage is located is not considered an on-site
facility.

Because an internal storage is usually located within a building which would normally be
considered an on-site facility, Clause 4.2.1(b) cannot validly be applied. Clause 4.2.1(a)
and (c) apply from any vent outlet or doorway. A number of other provisions incorporated
in Section 4 are intended to protect both the building and the storage.
4.3

CONSTRUCTION

4.3.1 General construction Any outdoor package storage shall be designed and
constructed to be adequate for the purpose in accordance with the following requirements,
as appropriate:
(a)

Other than where a fire-rated structure is required, any wall or roof shall be
masonry, concrete, or a structure sheeted with non-combustible material, except for
any necessary skylights.
NOTE: Non-combustible material on timber frames complies with these requirements.

COPYRIGHT

25

AS 1940—1993

(b)

Floors forming part of the spillage catchment system shall be impervious, not liable
to degradation or to incendive sparking when tested in accordance with AS 3584,
Appendix D. Suitable materials are concrete and masonry.

(c)

Platform surfaces shall comply with Item (b). The loading face shall be a vapour
barrier up to the deck height, extending the full length of the face, and returning at
least 1 m along the side at each end. This requirement may be waived where the
platform is not more than 20 m2 in area and is used for storage of C2 liquid only.

(d)

A storage cabinet complying with Clause 4.5 may be used for outdoor storage,
provided that adequate protection against weather, corrosion, and traffic damage is
provided.
TABLE 4.1
SEPARATION DISTANCES FOR PROTECTED WORKS
Maximum capacity of liquid storage m3 (kL)
Minimum
distance

Class of liquid stored
Flammable

Licensed to LUU MINH LUAN on 25 Feb 2002. Single user licence only. Storage, distribution or use on network prohibited.

PG , PG
0.1
1
2

Combustible
PG

C1
0.5
4
8

2.5
10
20

C2
5
20
40

m
Unrestricted
3
4

4
7
10

16
28
40

40
70
100

80
140
200

5
6
7

14
20
26

56
80
104

140
200
260

280
400
520

8
9
10

34
42
52

136
168
208

340
420
520

680
840
1 040

11
12
13

64
77
170

256
308
680

640
770
1 700

1 280
≥1 540

14
15
20

310
500
750

1 240
2 000
≥3 000

≥3 100

1 100
1 500
≥2 000

25
30
35
40
45
50

NOTES:
1

The distances applicable for any intermediate capacity may be obtained by linear
interpolation.

2

Separation distances may be reduced by the use of firewalls and vapour barriers. See
Clause 3.3.

COPYRIGHT

Licensed to LUU MINH LUAN on 25 Feb 2002. Single user licence only. Storage, distribution or use on network prohibited.

AS 1940—1993
26

FIGURE 4.1 (in part) TYPICAL PACKAGES STORAGE—TYPES AND LOCATIONS
(refer Clause 4.1)

COPYRIGHT

Licensed to LUU MINH LUAN on 25 Feb 2002. Single user licence only. Storage, distribution or use on network prohibited.

27

COPYRIGHT

AS 1940—1993

FIGURE 4.1 (in part) TYPICAL PACKAGES STORAGES—TYPES AND LOCATIONS
(refer Clause 4.1)

AS 1940—1993

28

TABLE 4.2
SEPARATION DISTANCES FOR BOUNDARIES AND IGNITION SOURCES
Minimum distance, m
Separation from boundaries
and ignition sources to:

Class of liquid stored
Flammable
PG , PG , PG

Combustible
C1

C2

Storage area for closed packages

3

2

1

Opened packages (decanting, mixing, filling of
packages

8

2

1

NOTE: Separation distances may be reduced by the use of firewalls and vapour barriers. See Clause 3.3.

Licensed to LUU MINH LUAN on 25 Feb 2002. Single user licence only. Storage, distribution or use on network prohibited.

4.3.2 Internal or attached storages A storage facility that is internal to a building or
shares a common wall with a protected works or an on-site facility shall be constructed as
follows:
(a)

The separating walls shall be constructed of a material having a 240/240/240 FRL
rating.

(b)

The floor shall be of reinforced concrete having a 180/180/180 FRL rating.

(c)

The roof shall be of a material having a 180/180/180 FRL rating unless the walls
are taken through the main roof to provide fire isolation.

(d)

Any occupancy or usage above a storage of flammable liquids shall be separated
from it by a barrier having an FRL rating of at least 180/180/180.

(e)

Where the only means of access to an above-ground storage of flammable liquids is
through an associated working area that is an on-site facility, the storage capacity
shall be limited to 15 000 L, or 100 m2, unless an automatic fire suppression system
is provided to the flammable liquid storage.
NOTE: This limitation is derived from potential difficulties in gaining access for
firefighting in such a storage.

4.3.3 Spillage control Provision shall be made to contain any leakage or spillage from
the packages, and to prevent it from contaminating surrounding soil or from entering any
drainage system other than one intended specifically for its drainage and collection.
Control shall be by a compound or the equivalent, e.g. via drainage channels to a separate
compound, a drainage tank, or pit. Construction and drainage shall comply with
Clauses 5.9.3 and 5.9.6. Except as prescribed elsewhere in this Section, the capacity of
such a compound shall be not less than 100% of the largest package plus 25% of the
storage capacity up to 10 000 L, together with 10% of the storage capacity beyond
10 000 L.
If an automatic or manual fire suppression system is installed the compound capacity shall
be increased by a volume equal to the output of the system over 20 min.
Any drainage system shall be capable of carrying the output of the sprinkler system over
the assumed area of operation at the design density of discharge (refer to AS 2118).
Any drainage system to outside the property shall incorporate an interceptor appropriate to
the product, readily accessible for inspection, located outside the compound, and so
arranged to separate pollutants from the carrier liquid and prevent contamination of
drains, natural watercourses and the sewer.
NOTE: The compound should be designed to provide a minimum surface area for the storage.

COPYRIGHT

29

AS 1940—1993

Where more than one storage is connected to a common compound, drainage tank or pit
the capacity of the compound shall be equal to the largest compound required for any one
storage plus 25% of the capacity of the compounds required for the other storages
connected to it.
4.3.4 Vent protection Any vent opening inside a storage shall be provided with a
barrier where necessary to prevent blockage by stored packages.
Where a vent passage passes through a wall which incorporates a cavity or is made of
bricks or blocks which incorporate cavities, a metal sleeve shall be provided to prevent
leakage of vapour into the cavities.
4.3.5 Doors and doorways Any doorway through a firewall that separates a storage
from an on-site facility shall be provided with a door, which shall be a sliding or an
outward-swinging, automatic-closing fire door complying with AS 1905.1, and fitted with
a thermal-release operation. The door shall have a minimum FRL rating of −/120/30.
Where a fire door separates a storage and an associated work area it shall be a self-closing
door unless it is fitted with a thermal link on the work area side. Ignition-source distances
shall be observed outside the door and the door shall be kept closed when not in regular
use.

Licensed to LUU MINH LUAN on 25 Feb 2002. Single user licence only. Storage, distribution or use on network prohibited.

4.3.6 Windows in fire-rated walls
the wall.

Any window fitted shall be of the same rating as

NOTES:
1 AS 1288 and AS 1905.1 include information on the fire resistance rating of glass.
2 Except in firewalls the quality of other doors and windows should be suitable for the
intended purpose.

4.4

VENTILATION

4.4.1 General ventilation Each package storage and handling area shall be ventilated
in accordance with the following requirements:
(a)

The ventilation provision shall be capable of ensuring that any normal level of
vapour generated within the storage is diluted with and removed by air passing
through the storage area.
NOTE: Air dilution of the vapour should be sufficient to maintain the storage below lower
explosive limits and recommended workplace exposure standards.

(b)

A natural ventilation system that complies with the conditions and the requirements
of Clause 4.4.3 shall be deemed to comply with Item (a).

(c)

A mechanical ventilation system that complies with the requirements of Clause 4.4.4
shall be deemed to comply with Item (a).

4.4.2 Package handling, filling and decanting areas Each package handling area
where filling, decanting or handling of open packages occurs, shall be provided with
additional ventilation where necessary to provide a safe working atmosphere under normal
operating conditions.
NOTE: In determining what constitutes a safe atmosphere, consideration should be given to
flammability and occupational health and safety considerations.

4.4.3 Natural ventilation A natural ventilation system shall comprise one of the
following as appropriate to the design of the storage building:
(a)

At least two walls completely open to outside atmosphere.
NOTE: A wall of wire mesh, or of fixed louvres, lattice or the like having at least 50% of
its area as openings, would be considered to be completely open.

(b)

One wall completely open to outside atmosphere, with no other vents, provided that
the distance to, and the length of, the opposite wall do not exceed the length of the
open wall.
COPYRIGHT

AS 1940—1993

30

(c)

Vents in one external wall, provided that such an external wall is not less than 6 m
long and the opposite wall is not more than 5 m distant from it.

(d)

One wall open to atmosphere as above, and vents in one opposite or adjacent wall.

(e)

Vents in opposite walls.

(f)

Any storage platform except a solid-filled type shall be provided with underdeck
ventilation by means of vent openings on opposite sides having an area of not less
than 0.1 m2 for each 1.2 m of length.

Where vents are prescribed, they shall consist of openings immediately above the upper
limit of the spillage compound, each having a net free area of at least 0.1 m 2, or 0.15 m2
where open packages are present, with an equal area of openings above the highest
package, disposed to ensure effective movement of air.
One of the low-level vents shall be located in each 3 m of length of wall, or in each 1.4 m
of length of external wall where there is only one external wall. Where only one such vent
is required, it shall be central in the length of wall.
An equivalent open area of ventilation may be approved, provided the required free area
per wall is maintained.

Licensed to LUU MINH LUAN on 25 Feb 2002. Single user licence only. Storage, distribution or use on network prohibited.

4.4.4 Mechanical ventilation
following requirements:
(a)

A mechanical ventilation system shall comply with the

The termination points within the room for both the fresh air supply and the
draw-off ducts shall be immediately above the upper limit of the spillage compound,
shall be on opposite walls and shall be of equal capacity. The distance between
register centres shall not exceed 5 m.
NOTES:
1

It is recommended that the registers be located along the longest side of the building to
optimize effectiveness.

2

If a single fan system is adopted the fan should be in the exhaust duct.

3

The supply duct may be in the form of natural ventilation in an external wall at low
level, meeting the requirements of Clause 4.4.3.

(b)

If the ventilation system incorporates fans on both the supply and exhaust ducts, the
capacities of the fans shall be so adjusted that the room is under negative pressure.

(c)

The system shall be capable of exhausting 0.3 m 3 per square metre of floor area per
minute or 5 m3/min, whichever is the greater, and the air velocity at the air entry
register shall exceed 300 m/min.

(d)

The system shall be provided with an airflow failure warning device.

(e)

Any intake or exhaust duct shall terminate in open air at least 2 m from any opening
into a building, or 4 m from the outlet of any chimney or flue and 3 m above the
ground. The external termination of any inlet duct shall be at least 5 m from the
external termination of any exhaust duct.

(f)

Any duct that passes through a building other than the storage area shall be
constructed of or protected by material having an FRL rating of at least −/180/180.
A common enclosure may be used for both intake and exhaust ducts.

(g)

The system shall be so designed that it either operates continuously or operates
whenever work is being carried out in the storage.

(h)

Fan blades and nearby components shall be made of materials that have minimal
potential for giving off sparks when struck.
NOTE: Materials known to be unsatisfactory are steel with steel, or steel with aluminium or
aluminium-magnesium alloys.

COPYRIGHT

31

4.5

AS 1940—1993

STORAGE CABINETS

4.5.1 Application Any storage in a storage cabinet shall comply with the applicable
requirements of this Section and Clauses 4.5.2 to 4.5.8.
4.5.2 Maximum capacity Not more than 250 L aggregate
combustible liquid shall be stored in any individual storage cabinet.

Licensed to LUU MINH LUAN on 25 Feb 2002. Single user licence only. Storage, distribution or use on network prohibited.

4.5.3 Cabinet construction
the following requirements:

of flammable and

The construction of a cabinet shall be in accordance with

(a)

The walls, floor, door and roof shall be of double-walled sheet steel construction,
with a space not less than 40 mm between the walls, which may be either an
airspace or filled with non-combustible insulation.

(b)

The cabinet bottom shall form a liquid-tight compound at least 150 mm deep.

(c)

Any shelf shall be perforated for free air movement, and shall be capable of
supporting the maximum possible load.

(d)

A cabinet door shall be self-closing, close-fitting, and held shut by catches at not
less than two points.

(e)

The materials of any components that are critical to structural integrity shall not
melt at temperatures less than 850°C, seals or gaskets excepted.

4.5.4 Cabinet marking Each individual cabinet shall be marked with the maximum
capacity to be kept in the cabinet (see Clause 4.5.2), a Class 3 dangerous goods label of at
least 100 mm nominal size, and a NO SMOKING, NO IGNITION SOURCES warning sign
in lettering of at least 50 mm height.
4.5.5 Ventilation provisions Where a cabinet incorporates provisions for optional
connection to an external venting system—
(a)

the design of any vent opening in the cabinet wall shall be such as to maintain the
structural strength of the cabinet;

(b)

the vent opening shall be provided with a means for permanent closure when
venting is not required;

(c)

a flash arrester shall be provided for use when the cabinet is to be vented; and

(d)

the information supplied with the cabinet shall include instructions on the
installation of the vent system.

NOTE: External ventilation is not required for fire safety purposes, but it is recognized that a
facility to connect a vent may be desirable to improve the general versatility of the cabinet, and
permit its use for toxic materials. The purpose of this requirement is to ensure that any such
provisions for adaptations do not compromise the integrity of the design. Double-wall
appliance-type flue pipe is considered adequate for vent ducts and, while extractor fans are not
required, wind-assisted terminal fittings are recommended.

4.5.6

Cabinet separation

The arrangement of cabinets shall be such that—

(a)

not more than 250 L is stored within any 250 m2 of floor area; and

(b)

not more than 250 L is stored in any 10 m of linear distance, and cabinets must not
be less than 5 m apart.

4.5.7

Ignition sources

A cabinet shall be not less than 3 m from any ignition source.

4.5.8 Free escape A cabinet shall be so located in relation to exits and stairways that
in the event of fire the escape of persons will not be jeopardized.
4.5.9 Cabinet venting Any vent shall be terminated at least 3 m from a source of
ignition, at least 1 m from any opening and at least 3 m above-ground.

COPYRIGHT

AS 1940—1993

32

S E C T I O N

5

S T O R A G E

I N

TA N K S

5.1 APPLICATION Any storage of flammable or combustible liquid in one or more
tanks shall comply with the general requirements of Section 3 together with those
requirements of this Section which are specifically applicable to the particular type of
installation, i.e. indoors, outdoors, above-ground or underground.

Licensed to LUU MINH LUAN on 25 Feb 2002. Single user licence only. Storage, distribution or use on network prohibited.

NOTES:
1

See Figure 5.1 for illustration of terms.

2

Installations considered to be located in remote areas, may be exempt from some of the
requirements of this Section subject to the approval of the authority.

3

Spillage containment requirements for power station and grid transformers are described in
Appendix C.

FIGURE 5.1 ILLUSTRATIONS OF TERMS RELATING TO
VARIOUS TANK LOCATIONS

COPYRIGHT