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2 TRANSPORT, HANDLING AND STORAGE

2 TRANSPORT, HANDLING AND STORAGE

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39

AS/NZS 3500.3.2:1998

TABLE

4.1

BOX GUTTERS AND SUPPORT SYSTEMS — MAXIMUM
LENGTH BETWEEN EXPANSION JOINTS AND
MINIMUM EXPANSION SPACE

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Material

Base
metal
thickness

Coefficient
of thermal
expansion
per °C

Minimum
expansion
space

mm

Maximum
length
between
expansion
joints
m

mm

Aluminium

24 × 10−6

0.90
1.00

12
12

50

Copper

17 × 10−6

0.60
0.80
1.00

9
15
26

50

Steel

12 × 10−6

0.55
0.75

20
25

50

Stainless Steel

17 × 10−6

0.55

20

50



10

30

0.80

10

50

−6

PVC

70 × 10

Zinc

26 × 10−6

NOTE: The temperature variation experienced by products will depend
upon geographical location, extent of shading and absorptivity and surface
colour. During summer, in most parts of Australia and New Zealand, the
temperature of products exposed to direct sunlight may exceed 80°C.

4.4.3 Corrosion due to crevices Metal roof drainage systems and support systems
shall be designed and installed in order to achieve complete drainage or drying. Shielded
areas capable of causing permanent ponding shall be avoided in order to prevent the
possibility of intense localized corrosion known as crevice corrosion.
NOTE: This type of attack results from contact of metal with moisture and salts under
oxygen-deficient conditions where trapped moisture cannot readily evaporate. It can be caused
by lap joints, absorbent gaskets, holes, crevices under bolt or rivet heads or surface deposits
including non-metallic materials, such as elastomeric materials, plastic, fabrics, lifted paint
films or accumulated solids.

4.4.4 Corrosion dues to chemical incompatibility Bedding materials used in
conjunction with roof drainage systems shall be chemically compatible. Cement-based
bedding may be used between tiles and valley gutters other than those of exposed
aluminium/zinc alloy coated steel.
4.5

INSTALLATION AND TESTING

4.5.1 Installation Installation of each new, or altered section of the roof drainage
system shall be in compliance with the following:
(a)

(b)
4.5.2

There are no restrictions to the free flow of stormwater due to —
(i)

protrusions or other obstructions; or

(ii)

debris, e.g. cement, mortar, clippings, and similar.

All accessories are effectively fixed and securely anchored.
Testing

Downpipes within buildings shall comply with Section 10.

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AS/NZS 3500.3.2:1998

40

TABLE

4.2

ACCEPTABILITY OF DIRECT CONTACT BETWEEN METALS
Fastener
material

Accessory or fastener material
Roof drainage
system
components and Aluminium alloys
any cladding
material

Copper and
copper alloys*

Stainless steel
(300 series)

Zinc-coated steel Aluminium/zinc
and zinc
alloy-coated steel

Ceramic or
organic coated

Lead

Atmospheric classification

SI and VS Mild SI and VS Mild SI and VS Mild SI and VS Mild SI and VS Mild SI and VS Mild SI, VS and Mild
Aluminium alloys

Yes

Yes

No

No



Yes





Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Copper and
copper alloys

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Stainless steel
(300 series)

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Zinc-coated steel
and zinc

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Aluminium/zinc
alloy-coated steel

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Yes





Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Lead §

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

*


§

Includes monel metal rivets.
Grade 316 in accordance with AS 1449 is suitable.
Unpainted zinc-coated steel and zinc are suitable for direct contact but should not receive drainage from an inert catchment.
Due to its toxicity, lead is not recommended for rainwater goods.

LEGEND:
SI, VS, Mild = severe industrial, very severe and mild classifications (see AS 2312).
Yes = acceptable — as a result of bimetallic contact, either no additional corrosion of rainwater goods will take place, or at the worst, only very slight
additional corrosion. It also implies that the degree of corrosion would not significantly shorten the service life.
No = not acceptable — moderate to severe corrosion of rainwater goods will occur, a condition which may result in a significant reduction in the service
life.
NOTE: Unless adequate separation can be assured, prepainted rainwater goods should be considered in terms of the base metal or coated metal product.

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41

TABLE

AS/NZS 3500.3.2:1998

4.3

ACCEPTABILITY OF DRAINAGE FROM AN UPPER SURFACE
TO A LOWER METAL SURFACE
Upper cladding or roof drainage system material
Lower roof
drainage system
material

Copper and
copper alloys

Stainless
steel
(300 series)

Zinccoated
steel and
zinc

Aluminium/
zinc alloycoated steel

Lead

Yes

No

*

Yes

Yes

*

Yes

Yes

Copper and
copper alloys

*

Yes

*

*

*

Yes

*

Stainless steel
(300 series)

*

*

Yes

*

*

Yes

Zinc-coated steel
and zinc

No

No

No

Yes

No

Aluminium/zinc
alloy-coated steel

Yes

No

*

Yes

*

*

*

*

Aluminium alloys

Lead

Aluminium alloys

Prepainted
metal

Roof tiles
Plastic

Glass

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

*

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

*

No

No

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

*

Yes

*

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Glazed Unglazed

* Whilst drainage between the materials shown would be acceptable, direct material contact should be avoided (see Table 4.2).
LEGEND:
Yes = acceptable

No = not acceptable

NOTE: ‘Acceptable’ and ‘not acceptable’ imply similar performances to those noted in Table 4.2.

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AS/NZS 3500.3.2:1998

4.6

42

INSPECTION AND CLEANING

NOTES:
1

The acceptable solutions for the sizing of stormwater drainage installations assume that the
responsible owner or manager arranges regular inspection and cleaning to remove any
obstructions that would reduce the installation’s hydraulic capacity or design lifetime, or
both.

2

Obstructions that could cause partial or complete reduction in the hydraulic capacity are
windborne plastics, drink cans, builders’ refuse, balls, bird nests, items deposited by birds,
dead birds, leaves, moss, mortar, silt or similar.

3

Guards on gutters and gutter outlets and screens on outlets from on-site stormwater
detention (OSD) facilities are installed to prevent reduction in hydraulic capacity due to
obstructions. Installation of such guards and screens does not eliminate the need for regular
inspection and cleaning. Guards used with rainwater goods might collect debris during
major storms, in spite of regular inspection and cleaning, and for this reason it might be
better not to install such guards, particularly on box gutter sumps.

4.7

ALTERATIONS AND DISCONNECTION

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NOTES:
1

Disused roof drainage system components including overflow devices should be removed
and any resulting openings to the remaining roof drainage system or surface-drainage
system should be sealed in a manner appropriate for the material remaining in use.

2

Disused accessories and fasteners should be removed and any damage to the building made
good in a manner appropriate for the material damaged.

4.8

EAVES GUTTERS

Eaves gutters shall be installed as follows:

(a)

Gradients Deviations from nominal gradients shall be smooth and not cause
permanent ponding.
NOTES:
1 Where a building is likely to move due to reactive soils, gradients may need to be not
flatter than —
(a) 1:250 to achieve an effective gradient not flatter than 1:500; or
(b) 1:500 to achieve an effective gradient with no permanent ponding.
2 Light condensation will not generally cause permanent ponding whereas heavy
condensation, particularly in conjunction with retained silt, can reduce the design lifetime
of the product.

(b)

Lap joints Lap joints shall have a lap equal to or greater than 25 mm, unless
otherwise specified by the manufacturer, in the direction of the outlet. Laps shall be
fastened and sealed.

(c)

Support systems

4.9

BOX GUTTERS

(a)

Gradients Gradients shall be not flatter than 1:200 for sole widths equal to or less
than 600 mm wide.

Support systems shall comply with Clause 4.16.
Box gutters shall be installed as follows:

Deviations from these gradients shall be smooth and not cause permanent ponding.
(b)

Lap joints

As for Clause 4.8(b).

(c)

Support systems

(d)

Outlets

As for Clause 4.8(c).

Outlets shall discharge through either a rainhead or a sump.

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43

(e)

AS/NZS 3500.3.2:1998

Expansion joints Where necessary, expansion joints shall be provided (see
Clause 4.3). All fixings shall be in the form of cleats and clips to allow freedom of
movement.

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NOTE: The sides of a box gutter should have adequate structural strength so that water pressure
will not cause deformation that can affect water surface levels and hence the hydraulic capacity
of a box gutter.

4.10

VALLEY GUTTERS

(a)

Lap joints

(b)

Support systems

(c)

Edges

4.11

DOWNPIPES

(a)

Locations

(b)

Valley gutters shall be installed as follows:

As for Clause 4.8(b).
As for Clause 4.8(c).

Edges shall be rolled or returned to prevent splashing.
Downpipes shall be installed as follows:

Downpipes shall be located —

(i)

so that they do not interfere with the normal operation of any door, window,
access opening or occupancy of a building;

(ii)

where they do not cause a nuisance or lead to injury of a person;

(iii)

as close as practicable to the supporting structure;

(iv)

so that they are adequately protected from mechanical damage;

(v)

at least 100 mm clear of any electrical cable or gas pipe;

(vi)

at least 50 mm from any other pipework or service; and

(vii)

as given in Table 4.4 when constructed of plastic.

Concealment or limited access
limited access provided —
(i)

Downpipes in buildings may be concealed or have

the inspection openings (see Item (d)) are accessible;
NOTE: To facilitate maintenance, inspection openings should be extended to the
face of a wall or slab.

(ii)

the installation complies with the manufacturer’s recommended installation
and maintenance procedures for the materials and products;

(iii)

the seams and joints are watertight;

(iv)

that unless otherwise directed by an engineer, they are —
(A)

clear of any structural member, e.g. beam, or column, or party wall; or

(B)

not concealed in any dry wall construction if it would interfere with
the structural integrity of the wall.

(c)

Connections within buildings Where a downpipe is connected to a site stormwater
drain located below a slab-on-ground, the connection shall be located above the
level of the floor.

(d)

Inspection openings Inspection openings for testing and maintenance purposes
shall have a nominal size of not less than nominal diameter of the downpipe.

(e)

Support systems

The support systems shall comply with Clause 4.16.

4.12 OVERFLOW DEVICES OR MEASURES Overflow devices for box gutters
shall comply with Clause 3.7. Overflow measures for eaves gutters shall comply with
Clause 3.5.2.

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AS/NZS 3500.3.2:1998

44

TABLE

4.4

MINIMUM DISTANCES OF PLASTIC DOWNPIPES
FROM HOT WATER PIPES
millimetres
Location of plastic downpipe in
relation to hot water pipe

Minimum distance from hot water pipe
Lagged

Above
Other locations

4.13

150
75

Unlagged
300
150

JOINTS FOR METAL COMPONENTS

4.13.1

Type of joints

4.13.1.1 Soldered Soldered joints shall be clean and free from grease, and shall be
flush and lapped in the direction of the outlets, as specified, and completely sweated with
solder to form a secure joint that does not cause permanent ponding. Immediately after
cleaning, the surfaces to be jointed shall be painted with the appropriate flux given in
Table 4.5.
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NOTES:
1

60/40 or 80/20 tin/lead solder can enhance the surface finish of stainless steel.

2

Because of the risk to health and safety, care should be exercised during the preparation and
handling of fluxes.

The laps for —
(a)

(b)

eaves gutters, shall be —
(i)

for in-line joints, not less than 25 mm; and

(ii)

for all other joints, as specified by the manufacturer; and

box gutters materials shall comply with Table 4.2 and fasteners shall be spaced at
not more than 40 mm centres and not less than 10 mm from the edges of the joint.

4.13.1.2 Sealant Sealant joints shall be used in conjunction with mechanical
connections or fasteners as specified in AS/NZS 2179.1 and compatible with Table 4.2,
spaced at not more than 40 mm centres. The sealant shall be sandwiched between clean
surfaces of the components of the joint to ensure a positive seal and to protect the sealant
from exposure to ultraviolet radiation. To ensure complete cure of silicone rubber
sealants, the width of sealant bead, when compressed, should not exceed 25 mm.
Laps shall be as for soldered joints, as appropriate.
TABLE

4.5

APPLICABILITY OF FLUXES
Material to be joined

Type of flux

Zinc-coated steel

Dilute hydrochloric acid*

Copper and copper alloy

Zinc chloride (killed spirits)

Stainless steel

Phosphoric acid based flux for soldering†

Zinc

Zinc chloride (killed spirits)

* Muriatic acid, 1:3 dilution of hydrochloric acid.
† Chloride-based fluxes are not used.

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45

AS/NZS 3500.3.2:1998

4.13.2 Aluminium alloys Aluminium alloy components including accessories shall be
jointed with one of the following:
(a)

Brazed joints Brazed joints shall have a minimum lap and shall be brazed with
aluminium/silicon alloys containing 11.5 ±1.5% silicon. Lower melting point
aluminium/silicon alloys shall not be used.
Flux-affected areas shall be thoroughly washed with water to prevent subsequent
corrosion.

(b)

Welded joints Welded joints shall be shop fabricated and be either the gas metalarc welding (GMAW) or gas tungsten-arc welding GTAW type (see AS 1665).
NOTES:
1

Field fabrication should be limited to joints that are fully protected from air movement
and moisture.

2

GMAW and GTAW types are also known as MIG and TIG welding types, respectively.

Soldered joints shall not be used with aluminium alloys due, in the presence of moisture,
to galvanic action.

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4.13.3 Aluminium/zinc alloy-coated steel Aluminium/zinc alloy-coated steel
components, including accessories, shall be jointed with sealant joints and fasteners as
specified in Clause 4.13.1.2.
4.13.4 Stainless steel Stainless steel components including accessories shall be jointed
with one of the following:
(a)

Sealant joints

(b)

Soldered joints

(c)

Welded joints

Sealant joints shall be as specified in Clause 4.13.1.2.
Soldered joints shall be as specified in Clause 4.13.1.1.
Welded joints shall be either —

(i)

spot welds at normal rivet centres, i.e. about 40 mm, and sealed with either
solder by sweating from the inside or sealant; or

(ii)

continuous weld.

Where material thickness allows, GMAW or GTAW may be used.
4.13.5 Zinc and zinc-coated steel Zinc and zinc-coated steel components including
accessories shall be jointed with one of the following:
(a)

Sealant joints

(b)

Soldered joints

Sealant joints shall be as specified in Clause 4.13.1.2.
Soldered joints shall be as specified in Clause 4.13.1.1.

4.14 JOINTS FOR PVC COMPONENTS Joints for PVC components including
accessories, shall comply with AS/NZS 2179.2(Int).
4.15 JOINTS FOR OTHER COMPONENTS Joints for other components of similar
and dissimilar metals and non-metals shall be as given in Table 4.6.

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AS/NZS 3500.3.2:1998

46

TABLE

4.6

PERMISSIBLE JOINTS FOR OTHER COMPONENTS OF SIMILAR OR
DISSIMILAR MATERIALS
From material 1
To
material 2

Aluminium
alloys

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Cast iron
and ductile
iron

Cast iron
and
ductile
iron

Aluminium
alloys
BG
ES
ER

MC
WD†

BG
ES

BG
ES

Copper
and
copper
alloy


Galvanized
steel
BG
ES
ER

FRC*

GRP

BG

PVC





BG
ES
SC/ER

PE



BG
ES
ER

BG
SB/ER

BG
ER

BG
ES
ER

BG
ES
ER

BG
ES
SC/ER

Copper and —
copper alloy

BG
ER/SB

SB
ES
SS

BG
TH/SB
ER/SB

BG
ER

BG
ES

SC/TH/SB BF/TH
SC/ER/SB TH/TH
ES
TH/SS

Galvanized
steel

BG
ES

BG
ER

SB/TH
SB/ER

TH
MC

ER

BG
ER

SC/TH
SC/ER



FRC†



BG
ES

BG
ER

ER

BG
ES

ER



ES
ER



GRP









BG
ES

ER BGER —
ES

PVC

BG
ES

BG
ES
ER/SC

SB/TH/SC TH/SC
SB/ER/SC ER/SC
ES

BG
ES

ER

PE

BG
ES



TH/BF
TH/TH
SS/TH



ER

BG





SC
ES
FC

SC/TH

TH/SC

BF
EF
MC

* Under buildings limited to ES.
† Limited to shop GTAW for thicknesses equal to or greater than 0.7 mm.
LEGEND
Symbol

Joint type

BF

Butt fusion

BG

Bolted gland

EF

Electrofusion

ER

Epoxy resin

ES

Elastomeric seal

FC
FL

Reference

Symbol

Joint type

Reference

MC

Mechanical
coupling

AS 1761

SB

Silver brazed

2.7.2.8

SC

Solvent cement

2.7.2.10

2.7.2.4

SS

Soft solder

2.7.2.9

2.7.2.3

TH

Threaded

2.7.2.11

Metal-bonded
flexible coupling

2.7.2.6

WD

GMAW or GTAW

AS 1665

Flanged

AS 4087

2.7.2.1

NOTES:
1 The direction of flow is to be from material 1 to material 2.
2 Where joint types are separated by one or more slashes, the joint between pipe materials
requires an appropriate transition fitting or adaptor.
3 Joints of dissimilar materials shall comply with Clause 4.4.

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TH
ES
FL

47

4.16

AS/NZS 3500.3.2:1998

SUPPORT SYSTEMS

4.16.1 Types The types of support systems are either non-trafficable or trafficable
(see vertical load test of AS/NZS 2179.1) and may be discontinuous or continuous.
4.16.2
(a)

Requirements

Support systems shall —

be fabricated from materials that —
(i)

are compatible with the supported roof drainage system; and

(ii)

where exposed to direct sunlight, are resistant to ultraviolet light;

NOTE: Incompatible materials may be used provided the contact surfaces are lined with a
non-abrasive, impervious, non-conducting material.

(b)

be securely attached to the building structure;

(c)

have no other service attached to them or be attached to any other service;

(d)

be protected against corrosion where exposed to a corrosive environment; and

(e)

be securely attached to prevent longitudinal movement, unless designed to allow for
thermal effect.

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4.16.3 Support systems for eaves gutters
manufactured from —
(a)

metals, shall comply with AS/NZS 2179.1; or

(b)

PVC, shall comply with AS/NZS 2179.2(Int).

Support systems for eaves gutters

NOTE: Eaves gutters and support systems are considered to be non-trafficable.

4.16.4 Support systems for box gutters
from —

Support systems for box gutters manufactured

(a)

metals, shall comply with AS/NZS 2179.1; or

(b)

PVC, shall comply with AS/NZS 2179.2(Int).

Such support systems shall be either —
(i)

continuous, where the support extends across the sole width for the full length of
the gutter and provides a direct evenly distributed contact to not less than 25% of
the sole width; or

(ii)

discontinuous, where the support brackets extend across the sole width of the gutter
and are located at stop ends, both ends of sumps, rainheads and intervals not greater
than 750 mm, or are located in accordance with manufacturers instructions.

NOTE: Continuous support systems should be used for sole widths greater than 450 mm.

4.16.5 Support systems for valley gutters
manufactured from —
(a)

metals, shall comply with AS/NZS 2179.1; or

(b)

PVC, shall comply with AS/NZS 2179.2(Int).

4.16.6
4.16.6.1

Support systems for valley gutters

Support systems for downpipes
Vertical

Support systems for vertical downpipes manufactured from —

(a)

metals, shall comply with AS/NZS 2179.1; or

(b)

PVC, shall comply with AS/NZS 2179.2(Int).

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AS/NZS 3500.3.2:1998

4.16.6.2
(a)

Graded

Support systems for graded downpipes of —

(i)

metals shall comply with AS/NZS 2179.1.

(ii)

PVC shall comply with AS/NZS 2179.2(Int).

jointed pipes and fittings shall have support spacing not exceeding —
(i)

for aluminium alloys, 2000 mm;

(ii)

for cast iron, ductile cast iron, copper, copper alloys, galvanized steel and
stainless steel, 3000 mm;

(iii)

for FRC and GRP, 4000 mm;

(iv)

for PVC, as specified for pressure pipe systems in AS 2032; and

(v)

for PE, as specified for pressure pipes above ground in AS 2033.

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(b)

48

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49

AS/NZS 3500.3.2:1998

S E C T I O N 5
S U R F A C E D R A I N A G E
S Y S T E M S — D E S I G N
5.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
of surface drainage systems.
5.2

This Section specifies acceptable solutions for the design

DESIGN METHODS

5.2.1 Methods Surface drainage systems for single dwellings in rural areas, and single
dwellings on urban allotments with areas less than 1000 m 2, shall be designed using the
nominal method (see Clause 5.4.)

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Surface drainage systems for the following types of buildings shall be designed using the
general method (see Clause 5.5):
(a)

Single dwellings on urban allotments with areas of 1000 m 2 or greater.

(b)

Allotments with group (cluster) housing.

(c)

Small industrial or commercial developments.

(d)

Large group housing, industrial, commercial or institutional (e.g. schools)
developments.

NOTE: Type (d) developments may include a number of site stormwater drains connecting to
common main-internal drains (see Clause 1.3.8). Main-internal drains shall be sized in the same
way as stormwater drains in streets in accordance with methods specified by the network utility
operator (see ARR97 and manuals in Paragraph A2, Appendix A).

5.2.2 General requirements Piped systems shall meet the minimum pipe diameter,
cover and gradient requirements specified in this Standard. Such systems shall be arranged
so that any overflows will not pond against, or enter into, buildings.
5.2.3 Design rainfall intensity Elements shall be designed to contain within surface
drains, gutters or formed flow paths minor storm events of the appropriate average
recurrence interval (ARI) specified in Table 5.1. Surface drainage systems shall be
designed to ensure overflows, in major storm events with an ARI of 100 years in
Australia or 50 years in New Zealand, do not present a hazard to people or cause
significant damage to property.
5.3

LAYOUT

5.3.1 General Layouts of surface drainage systems should take full advantage of the
existing and proposed topography of the site and the position and level of the point or
points of connection to the stormwater drainage network.
5.3.2
(a)

Influences on layout

Factors that determine a layout include the following:

Site conditions, including —
(i)

the intended uses of existing and proposed buildings;

(ii)

location of downpipes and overflow devices, where appropriate, surcharge
outlets and outlets of any internal drainage or pump-out systems;

(iii)

any stormwater discharges from adjacent land;

(iv)

location of existing and proposed pervious and impervious areas, such as
paved areas, parking lots and gardens;

(v)

soil types and strata, and vegetative cover and trees;

(vi)

locations of access to the site, and to ground-level and below-ground floors
of buildings (see Clause 5.3.3.4);
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