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4 ACCESS, PROTECTION, FITTINGS AND ACCESSORIES

4 ACCESS, PROTECTION, FITTINGS AND ACCESSORIES

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47

5.5

AS/NZS 1596:1997

DISCHARGE FROM SAFETY RELIEF DEVICE

5.5.1 Discharge rate The rate of discharge of a safety relief device on an underground
tank may be reduced to not less than 30% of that required for an above-ground tank as
specified in Clause 3.4.1(d).
5.5.2 Point of discharge The discharge from a safety relief device shall be directed
vertically upwards, and the discharge point shall terminate not less than 3 m above the
ground. The discharge point shall be not less than 2 m from any opening in a wall or
structure which could permit vapour to enter a building, a cavity wall, a roof space, or a
similar enclosure.
NOTE: Particular care should be taken to recognize such potential entry paths as weatherboards and
roofing tiles.

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A shear point shall be fitted downstream of the safety valve to ensure that impact or high
wind loads cause failure at the shear point so that the safety valve remains in the tank
maintaining containment.

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AS/NZS 1596:1997
48

FIGURE 5.2

PIPING CONNECTION TO BURIED TANKS

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49

S E C T I O N

6

C Y L I N D E R S A N D
S Y S T E M S

AS/NZS 1596:1997

C Y L I N D E R

6.1 APPLICATION This Section provides for the design and construction of cylinder
installations, and for their use to supply LP Gas, either directly from a cylinder to an
individual appliance, or from single or multiple cylinders supplying a piping system for use
away from the cylinder(s). It also applies to the storage of cylinders (and non- refillable
containers) awaiting use or resale at both customer and distribution premises.
NOTES:
1

The design and construction of gas-burning equipment, and the installation of such equipment,
is generally covered in other Standards or in AGA/ALPGA codes.

2

Requirements for the use of mobile or portable industrial (non-domestic) space heaters are
provided in Appendix I.

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6.2

CYLINDERS

6.2.1 Standards Cylinders shall comply with AS 2030.1 in Australia, and in New Zealand
to an approved standard as relevant to LP Gas, subject to the qualifications for specific
applications prescribed in this Clause (6.2) and the surface coating identification marking
requirements of Appendix C.
6.2.2 Exchange-fill cylinders In Australia only, a cylinder which is not connected and is
intended to be refilled by the procedure described in Clause 7.2.1 and which is larger than
25 L capacity shall not be fitted with a gas release type of fixed liquid level gauge. For fuel
containers for internal combustion engines this limit may be increased to 50 L.
6.2.3 In-situ fill cylinders A cylinder for in-situ filling applications shall be not less than
100 L capacity and shall be provided with —
(a)

a filling connection which incorporates a 1¾ male Acme thread and a non-return valve;
and

(b)

a fixed liquid level gauge which shall indicate a maximum liquid level equivalent to
4 L less than the normal contents for a cylinder of that particular size.

The pumping rate shall be appropriate to the cylinder size so as to minimize the risk of
overfilling.
6.2.4 Cylinders filled by decanting Any cylinder intended to be filled by a decanting
method that is monitored by means of a fixed liquid level gauge shall not exceed 25 L
capacity, or 50 L capacity if used as a fuel container for a vehicle engine.
6.2.5 Liquid withdrawal cylinders Any cylinder used for liquid withdrawal other than
an automotive fuel container shall be identified in accordance with Appendix C.
6.2.6 Butane cylinders Cylinders to contain butane exclusively shall incorporate
connecting fittings that are not interchangeable with those for other LP Gas service.
6.3

REGULATORS AND PIPING

6.3.1 Regulators Regulators for cylinder-supplied systems shall comply with Clause 3.5.7,
and shall be installed in accordance with Clause 4.11.
6.3.2 Piping and hose Any piping and hose used in a cylinder installation shall comply
with Clauses 3.6 and 4.9.

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AS/NZS 1596:1997

6.4
6.4.1

50

CYLINDERS IN USE
General

All cylinders in use shall be located outdoors except —

(a)

where the cylinder is the fuel container for a vehicle that is used or garaged indoors;
or

(b)

where permitted by Clause 6.5.

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6.4.2 Cylinder location Cylinders that are installed outdoors shall be located in
accordance with the following requirements:
(a)

Cylinders shall be separated from protected places, public places, railway lines and
ignition sources in accordance with Table 6.1.

(b)

Where the cylinders are adjacent to a building, they may be placed next to each other
in a group of up to 2500 L aggregate water capacity.

(c)

There shall be a minimum distance of 3 m between the cylinder groups (see Item (b)
above and Figure 6.1).

(d)

Where any opening into the building is below the level of the cylinder’s pressure relief
valve, the nearest cylinder shall be at least 1 m away, measured horizontally.

(e)

Where a cylinder is installed beneath a window, the distance between the top of any
cylinder valve and the bottom of the window’s opening shall be at least that specified
in Figure E2 or E3 of Appendix E.

6.4.3 Hazardous area requirements The hazardous area surrounding a gas cylinder
specified in AS 2430.3/NZS 6101.3 shall be maintained free of ignition sources.
NOTE: Guidance is provided in Appendix H.

The following exceptions apply to the exclusion of ignition sources for these specific areas:
(a)

The presence of a window above a cylinder will be deemed not to create a hazardous
area within the building provided that the installation complies with the requirements
of Clause 6.4.2(e).

(b)

This requirement does not apply to the location of a flame or igniter of a gas appliance
and its supplying cylinders where —
(i)

the cylinder capacity does not exceed 25 L;

(ii)

in Australia, both the cylinder and the appliance are located outdoors either as
a fixed installation or as a portable or mobile appliance unit; and

(iii)

heat from the appliance will not cause the design temperature of the cylinder to
be exceeded.

6.4.4 Changed site conditions Where alterations on the installation site or adjoining
property result in a breach of the requirements for separation distances, the cylinder or
cylinders affected shall be brought into compliance.
6.4.5 Use of vapour barriers and firewalls Separation distances may be measured in a
horizontal plane around the end of any vapour barrier or firewall which intervenes provided
that —
(a)

the top of the vapour barrier or firewall is not less than 0.5 m above the top of the
cylinder valve;

(b)

a firewall is used when the separation distances under consideration involve a protected
place; and

(c)

the construction of the firewall or vapour barrier complies with the requirements of
Clause 4.4 as appropriate.

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AS/NZS 1596:1997

NOTES:
1

Cylinders in groups need not be manifolded. They may supply different installations.

2

Additional requirements apply if the cylinders are filled in situ (see Clauses 6.4.8 and 10.12.4).

3

See Table 6.1 for separation distances to protected places, public places, railway lines and ignition sources.

FIGURE 6.1 DISTANCES BETWEEN CYLINDER GROUPS

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6.4.6 Ventilation and access Nearby constructions, fences, walls and vapour barriers shall
permit free access to and cross-ventilation for the cylinders.
6.4.7 Installing cylinders
requirements:

Cylinders shall be installed in accordance with the following

(a)

A cylinder shall be installed on a firm, level, non-combustible base, and not resting on
soil.

(b)

A cylinder that is liable to accidental dislodgment shall be secured.
NOTE: Accidental dislodgment is deemed to include a cylinder located in an area which is
likely to be subject to flooding or seismic activity.
In New Zealand, all cylinders larger than 25 L shall be secured against seismic activity.

(c)

Any cylinder which is liable to damage from manoeuvring vehicles shall be protected
by fenders or their equivalent.

(d)

Cylinders shall not be installed below ground level unless the ventilation provisions are
adequate to prevent the accumulation of any gas which may leak.

(e)

A cylinder shall be installed so that the pressure-relief valve is in contact with the
vapour space and, where practicable, any discharge from this valve shall be away from
adjacent structures and be directed away from adjacent cylinders or combustible
structures.

(f)

A cylinder intended to be exchanged or to be removable shall be connected to a fixed
piping system by flexible piping or hose. Any hose shall be as short as practicable and
not more than 1 m long.

(g)

A cylinder shall be installed so that the point of LP Gas withdrawal (for vapour service
cylinders) is in contact with the vapour space.

NOTE: Authorities in most areas permit only specifically licensed persons to make, repair, alter,
or open connections in any LP Gas cylinder installation, except for the actual connection or
disconnection of cylinders.

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AS/NZS 1596:1997

52

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6.4.8 Installations for in-situ filling An installation of cylinders intended for in-situ
filling shall comply with the requirements of Section 6 as relevant, unless varied by any of
the following requirements:
(a)

Cylinders other than those specifically fitted for the purpose shall not be used for
in-situ filling installations (see Clause 6.2).

(b)

An in-situ fill cylinder shall be located outdoors.

(c)

Multiple in-situ fill cylinders shall not be filled by a common manifold filling line.

(d)

An opening into a building shall not lie within a zone 0.5 m above and 1 m laterally
from a cylinder or its valves or fittings. (See Figure E3 of Appendix E.)

(e)

In-situ filling shall be conducted in accordance with the requirements of Clauses 10.9
and 10.10 and in recognition of the
hazardous areas delineated in
AS 2430.3/NZS 6101.3 for in-situ fill cylinder locations. (See Appendix E and
Appendix H.)

(f)

In Australia, a cylinder of 200 L or less capacity shall be securely held in place.

(g)

The cylinder shall be placed on a base raised at least 50 mm above the surrounding
level, the top surface of which shall be such as to shed water from the cylinder support
area.
NOTE: Surfaces that are prone to indentation over time, e.g. bitumen which may soften when
subject to heat, are not considered suitable because of the possibility of accumulation of water
in depressions.

(h)

Where a cylinder installation is vulnerable to falling objects, the cylinder valves,
regulator, and piping shall be provided with protective guards. Particular attention shall
be paid to the risks of impact or cylinder dislodgment due to ice and snow, where
appropriate.

6.4.9 Cylinders in public locations Where a cylinder exceeding 12 L capacity is
permanently installed for public use in any sportsground, fairground, park, playground,
caravan park, or similar publicly accessible location, the following requirements shall apply:
(a)

(b)

Either —
(i)

the cylinder and any associated regulator shall be enclosed in a lockable cage
or cabinet ventilated top and bottom; or

(ii)

the cylinder valves and regulator shall be guarded by a covering metal hood,
and the cylinder shall be protected against accidental dislodgment.

The connecting piping shall be arranged so that it is not vulnerable to accidental impact
or tampering.

This requirement does not apply to cylinders on caravans, mobile homes, or to cylinders of
any domestic dwelling associated with the site.
6.5 CYLINDERS IN USE WITHIN BUILDINGS In Australia the use of LP Gas
cylinders and the retention of reserve or exhausted cylinders indoors shall be avoided
wherever practicable. Where it is not practicable to provide an outdoors cylinder and a
piping system, in-building usage of cylinders shall be restricted as specified in Section 2.
In New Zealand the use and storage of cylinders indoors shall be subject to the limits and
conditions of Table 2.1. The retention of reserve or exhausted cylinders indoors shall be
avoided where practicable.

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6.6

AS/NZS 1596:1997

CYLINDER STORAGE

6.6.1 Site requirements
following requirements:

The area in which cylinders are stored shall comply with the

(a)

The location shall be such as will ensure that cylinders are not liable to physical
damage, tampering, or excessive temperature rise. This requirement shall not be taken
to preclude storage in the open exposed to the sun.

(b)

The base or floor shall be constructed of non-combustible materials. Where there is any
space between the floor and the ground itself, such a space shall be either completely
filled with a non-combustible solid material or adequately ventilated in compliance
with Clause 7.3.3.

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NOTE: Timber and floor coverings are considered non-combustible for this purpose.

(c)

Cylinders shall be stored in such a manner that the pressure-relief device is in
communication with the vapour space.

(d)

Buildings used for cylinder storage shall incorporate non-combustible cladding for
walls and roof and be ventilated by natural or mechanical means in accordance with the
ventilation requirements of AS 4332.

(e)

Cylinders in a mixed cylinder storage shed shall be separated from any oxidizing gases
by at least 3 m. This separation distance may be measured horizontally around a vapour
barrier complying with the requirements of Clause 6.4.5.

Cylinders awaiting dispatch may be kept on a filling platform in accordance with Clause 7.3.
6.6.2 Separation distances Cylinders stored in the open or within a building shall be
located at the distances given in Table 6.1, and the following requirements shall apply:
(a)

A cylinder shall be not less than 1 m horizontally away from an opening into, and shall
be outside of, any building which is not used solely for storage of gas cylinders.

(b)

The distance between any cylinder and any above-ground LP Gas storage tank or
flammable liquid storage which exceeds 250 L capacity shall be not less than 3 m.
Cylinders shall not be stored within any compound (bunded area) for flammable liquid
storages.

(c)

The distance between any two groups of cylinders shall be not less than the
protected-place distance for the larger group.

(d)

Cylinder-filling locations in accordance with Section 7 shall not be treated as protected
places.

(e)

Clause 6.4.5 shall apply.

6.6.3 Cylinder storage Cylinders which are empty but not gas freed and cylinders which
have been refilled shall be stored in accordance with Clause 6.6 and the following additional
requirements:
(a)

The outlet valve shall be kept closed or the cylinder opening plugged.

(b)

Where a cylinder is designed to incorporate a detachable valve cap, the cap shall be
kept in place when the cylinder is not in use.

NOTE: The requirements for trolley-mounted cylinders are provided in Clause 2.4.

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AS/NZS 1596:1997

54

TABLE 6.1
CYLINDER LOCATIONS
1

2

3

4

Aggregate capacity of
cylinders

Minimum distance
from public places
or railway lines

Minimum
distance from a
protected place

Minimum
distance from an
ignition source

L

m

m

m

0

≤1 000

0

0

>1 000

≤2 500

1.5

3.0*

>2 500

≤6 000

3.0

4.5

>6 000

≤12 000

3.0

6.0

>12 000

≤120 000

4.5

8.0

8.0

15.0

>120 000

See Clause 6.4.3

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* This distance may be reduced to zero where there are no other confining structures, such
as a solid fence or building, within 3 m.
NOTES:
1 The distances are horizontal projections of distances measured through air.
2 See Appendix E for illustrations of distances.
3 The boundary from adjacent private property is not considered to be a protected place.
This implies that a separation distance may be measured across a boundary to the nearest
protected place on that site, if any. It should be borne in mind that Clause 6.4.4 imposes
a condition, which is a potential penalty should the adjoining property be further
developed.

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AS/NZS 1596:1997

S E C T I O N 7
C Y L I N D E R - F I L L I N G
I N S TA L L AT I O N S — A U S T R A L I A
7.1 APPLICATION This Section provides requirements for installations for the filling
of cylinders within Australia.
NOTE: Excluded from this Section are in-situ filling installations (Section 6) and on-vehicle
automotive refuelling (Section 9).

7.2

GENERAL

7.2.1 Filling by mass Cylinders for LP Gas to be filled by mass shall be filled by
pumping at a cylinder-filling area in accordance with Clause 7.3, except as permitted in
Clauses 7.2.2 and 10.12.
When filling by pumping, the pumping rate shall be appropriate to the cylinder size to
minimize the risk of overfilling.

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7.2.2 Filling by volume
volume, as follows:

The appropriate method shall be used when filling cylinders by

(a)

Decanting—if the cylinder is designed and properly set up for decanting by having a
fixed liquid level gauge.

(b)

Pump filling—if the cylinder is designed and properly set up for pump filling by
having an appropriate automatic fill limiting device.

When filling by pumping, the pumping rate shall be appropriate to the cylinder size, in order
to reduce the likelihood of overfilling.
7.2.3 Ignition sources An ignition source shall not fall within a hazardous area as defined
in AS 2430.1 and AS 2430.3.
NOTE: Relevant hazardous areas information is given in Appendix H.

7.2.4 Use of vapour barriers and firewalls Separation distances may be measured
horizontally around a vapour barrier or firewall constructed in accordance with Clause 4.4
provided that —
(a)

the top of the vapour barrier or firewall is not less than 0.5 m above the level of the
filling connection;

(b)

Clauses 4.2.8 and 6.4.5 apply respectively for associated tanks or cylinders; and

(c)

a firewall is used when the separation distance involves a protected place.

7.2.5 Suitability of gas supply A tank or cylinder that supplies propane/butane blends as
fuel for an engine or liquid phase burner shall not be used to fill cylinders for other
applications.
7.3

CYLINDER-FILLING AREA

7.3.1 Location of filling point Where cylinders are filled other than by decanting, the
cylinder-filling point and the edge of the cylinder-filling area shall be not less than 6 m from
a protected place nor less than 3 m from a public place, boundary, drain, pit, basement, or
an LP Gas storage tank.
NOTE: Railings, or similar, to prevent movement into the separation zone may be taken into
account in the application of this requirement.

7.3.2 Adjacent storage
shall apply, and —
(a)

Where cylinders are stored adjacent to the filling point, Clause 6.6

a clear means of egress in more than one direction and not less than 1 m wide shall be
maintained from the filling point clear of the area where cylinders are stored; and

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AS/NZS 1596:1997

(b)
7.3.3

56

cylinders other than the one being filled shall be kept not less than 1 m clear of the
filling equipment and the operator.
Ventilation

A cylinder-filling area shall be ventilated as follows:

(a)

Where the area is covered, cross-ventilation shall be provided by openings at the top
and the bottom of all sides or by leaving at least two sides open.

(b)

Where the filling area is on a platform or elevated above ground level, the space
beneath shall be open on at least three sides, free of combustibles and empty, or filled
solid.

7.3.4 Emergency shut-down device An emergency shut-down device shall be fitted to
shut off liquid supply to the filling point in an emergency. The actuating point shall be
located so that it is convenient to the path of egress from the operating station.
7.4

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7.4.1

DECANTING
Restrictions

The following restrictions apply to decant filling:

(a)

Cylinders larger than 25 L capacity shall not be filled by decanting, except that for
cylinders used as fuel containers for vehicle engines this limit may be increased to
50 L. Larger vehicle engine fuel containers fitted with an automatic fill limiter (AFL)
may be filled by decanting to permit testing and commissioning of the installation in
accordance with AS 1425/NZS 5422.1.

(b)

A decanting cylinder or tank shall be arranged so that only one cylinder may be filled
at a time.

7.4.2 Decanting transfer equipment The decanting hose shall comply with Clause 3.6.5
and shall be of not more than 10 mm nominal bore and not more than 1.5 m long. An
excess-flow valve shall be provided before the upstream end of the hose or rigid decanting
arm, and a valve actuated by a dead man’s handle shall be incorporated at the cylinder filling
attachment.
7.4.3 Location A decanting cylinder shall not be stored indoors, used indoors or used in
a portable application and shall be located on the ground in a static position. Whether
decanting from a tank or a cylinder, the design of the installation shall be such that the point
of connection to the cylinder being filled cannot lie within the following separation distance:
(a)

To an opening into a building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 m.

(b)

To buildings on neighbouring property or to any
combustible materials stored above ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5 m.

(c)

To public places . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 m.

(d)

To any above-ground tank containing dangerous goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 m.

(e)

To dispensers for any type of fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 m.

(f)

To the entrance to a drain, pit, or basement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 m.

(g)

To any structure limiting egress past the point
of connection to the cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 m.

NOTES:
1

The point of connection implies hose reach if flexible decanting hoses are used. Except where
LP Gas decanting is carried out on a dedicated area clearly marked on the ground or on a
cylinder stand, the separation distances may be taken from the marked area or stand.

2

The above requirements are displayed in Figure 7.1.

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57

AS/NZS 1596:1997

If decanting from a tank, the tank shall be installed in a fixed position in accordance with
Section 4 and the flexible hose connection point to the tank shall be not less than 3 m from
the tank. Provision shall be made to ensure that the hose is not used in such a manner that
the decanting connection would encroach on the separation distance specified in Item (d) or
be closer to the tank than the hose connection point.
Decanting cylinders located at service stations shall comply with the requirements of
Clause 9.5.19.

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NOTES:
1

Railings, or similar, to prevent movement into the separation zone may be taken into account
in the application of this requirement.

2

The separation distances in this Clause (7.4.3) and the hazardous area in Figure H3 are based
on a single decant point.

3

Recommended decant procedures are provided in Appendix J.

FIGURE 7.1

DECANTING CYLINDER LOCATION

7.4.4 Positioning of cylinder The cylinder to be filled shall be positioned so that the fixed
level gauge and the safety valve communicate with the vapour space.

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